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John Chapter 19

    Chapter 19

THE INTERNAL SENSE.

  1. THEN Pilate therefore took jesus and scourged [him.]

THAT they, who are in the falses of ignorance, treat the Word with contumely, being misled by those who are in knowledges, vs 1.

  1. And the soldiers, platting a crown of thorns, put [it] on his head, and they put on him a purple robe,
  2. And said, Hail, King of the Jews; and they gave him blows with a rod.

And even they, who fought in favour of truths, falsified and adulterated those truths, vs 2, 3.

  1. Then Pilate went forth again, and says to them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that you may know that I find in him no fault.
  2. Then came jesus forth bearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe; and says to them, Behold the Man!

Still they, who are in the falses of ignorance, are disposed to acknowledge the lord's integrity, who at that time represented the divine Word as to its quality in the Jewish church, where it was suffocated by the falses of cravings, vs 4, 5.

  1. When therefore the chief priests and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify, crucify. Pilate says to them, Take you him and crucify, for I find no fault in him.
  2. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and according to our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of god.
  3. When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid.
  4. And entered again into the governor's hall, and says to jesus, Whence are you? But jesus gave him no answer.

Therefore, notwithstanding his rejection by the perverted church, they still maintain his innocence, and are led into further enquiry concerning his divinity, which is denied in the perverted church, vs 6, 7, 8, 9.

  1. Then says Pilate to him, Speak you not to me ? Know you not that I have power to crucify you, and have power to release you?
  2. jesus answered, You would have no power against me, unless it were given you from above; therefore he that delivered me to you has the greater sin.

But on this subject they receive no instruction, until they are first instructed concerning the laws of divine permission and providence, to which all human power is subjected, vs 10, 11.

  1. From this Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If you release this [man] you are not Caesar's friend; every one who makes himself a king, speaks against Caesar.
  2. Pilate then hearing this saying, brought jesus forth, and sat down in the tribunal, in a place called the pavement, but in Hebrew, Gabbatha.
  3. But it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour; and he says to the Jews, Behold your King.

By which instruction they are the more confirmed in favour of the lord's integrity, and divinity, and notwithstanding what is urged by the perverted church, that temporal dominion is more to be consulted than the dominion of the eternal truth, they continue steadfast in asserting the dominion of truth, thus of the lord's divine humanity, vs 12, 13, 14.

  1. But they cried out, Away with, away with, crucify him, Pilate says to them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

Which spiritual dominion is entirely rejected by the perverted church, so that they acknowledge no dominion but what is temporal, or of the world, vs 15.

  1. Then delivered he him therefore to them to be crucified; and they took jesus and led [him] away.
  2. And he bearing the cross, went forth into a place called [the place] of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha.
  3. Where they crucified him, and two others with him, on this side and on that side, but jesus in the midst.

And thus they also, who are in the falses of ignorance, are led to reject the lord, who, as to his humanity, is totally rejected by the perverted church, together with faith and charity, v, 16, 17, 18.

  1. But Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross; but the writing was, jesus of nazareth, THE KING OF THE JEWS.
  2. This title then read many of the Jews, for the place where jesus was crucified was near to the city, and it was written in Hebrew, in Greek, in Latin.
  3. Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, the King of the Jews; but that he said, I am the King of the Jews.
  4. Pilate answered, what I have written I have written.

Still they insist that the lord, in his humanity, is divine truth, or the Word, thus contumeliously treated, notwithstanding what is urged to the contrary by the perverted church, vs 19, 20, 21, 22.

  1. Then the soldiers, when they had crucified jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part, and the coat; but the coat was without seam worked from the top throughout.
  2. They said therefore one to another, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be; that the Scripture might be fulfilled, which says, They parted my garments among them, and for my clothing they did cast lots: these things therefore the soldiers did.

Who, whilst they ought to fight in favour of truth, dissipate and destroy every truth of the Word, except the internal spiritual truth, which they are not able to destroy, and this according to prediction, vs 23, 24.

  1. But there stood by the cross of jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the [wife of] Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.
  2. jesus then seeing the mother, and the disciple standing by whom he loved, says to his mother, Woman, behold your Son!
  3. Then says he to the disciple, Behold your mother! And from that hour the disciple took her to his own.

The lord teaches that charity in effect, or works of charity, constitute the church, vs 25, 26, 27.

  1. After this jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, says, I thirst.
  2. Then there was set a vessel full of vinegar, but they, filling a sponge with vinegar, and putting it upon hyssop, applied it to his mouth.
  3. When jesus therefore received the vinegar, he said, It is finished, and bowing the head, he delivered up the Spirit.

And from his ardent love of what is good and true in the church, accepts the falses of ignorance amongst the Gentiles, when purified, as truths, vs 28, 29, 30.

  1. The Jews therefore, lest the body should remain on the cross on the sabbath, since it was the preparation, (for that day of the sabbath was a great day) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and they might be taken away.
  2. Then came the soldiers, and break the legs of the first, and of the other that was crucified with him.
  3. But coming to jesus, when they saw him already dead, they break not his legs.

That the perverted church are eager to destroy scientific truth, and do destroy the doctrinals of faith and charity, but not those which are in connection with divine truth, vs 31, 32, 33.

  1. But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and immediately there came out blood and water.
  2. And he that saw bare witness, and his witness is true, and he knows that he says true, that you might believe.
  3. For these things came to pass, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, a bone of him shall not be bruised.
  4. And again another Scripture says, They shall look on him whom they pierced.

They destroy also all the spiritual and natural truth of the Word, agreeably to the testimony of those who are principled in the good of love, and who therefore acknowledge the divine truth which teaches that scientific truth shall be kept entire, and that nevertheless the perverted church destroyed both the spiritual and natural truth of the Word, vs 34, 35, 38, 37.

  1. But after these things Joseph of Arimathea (being a disciple of jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews) besought Pilate that he might take away the body of jesus, and Pilate gave leave; he came therefore and took the body of jesus.
  2. But there came also Nicodemus, which came to jesus by night privately, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, a hundred pounds.
  3. Then took they the body of jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices as is the custom with the Jews to bury.

Nevertheless they, who are principled in the truth of the church, acknowledge the lord's humanity, and his divine life in the sensual principle, and thus his glorification even to the ultimates of the body, vs 38, 39, 40.

  1. But in the place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new sepulchre, in which no one as yet was laid.
  2. There therefore, by reason of the preparation of the Jews because the sepulchre was near, they deposited Jesus.

For the lord's final temptation-combats were under the influence of his divine wisdom and intelligence, and thus aided his ascent to the divine good, different from all other men, and therefore he submitted to the process of his glorification, as it had been before representatively figured in the Word, vs 41, 42.

Translation

1. THEN Pilate therefore took jesus and scourged [him.]

2. And the soldiers, platting a crown of thorns, put [it] on his head, and they put on him a purple robe,

3. And said, Hail, King of the Jews; and they gave him blows with a rod.

4. Then Pilate went forth again, and says to them, Behold, I bring him forth to you, that you may know that I find in him no fault.

5. Then came jesus forth bearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe; and says to them, Behold the Man!

6. When therefore the chief priests and officers saw him, they cried out, saying, Crucify, crucify. Pilate says to them, Take you him and crucify, for I find no fault in him.

7. The Jews answered him, We have a law, and according to our law he ought to die, because he made himself the Son of god.

8. When Pilate therefore heard that saying, he was the more afraid.

9. And entered again into the governor's hall, and says to jesus, Whence are you? But jesus gave him no answer.

10. Then says Pilate to him, Speak you not to me ? Know you not that I have power to crucify you, and have power to release you?

11. jesus answered, You would have no power against me, unless it were given you from above; therefore he that delivered me to you has the greater sin.

12. From this Pilate sought to release him: but the Jews cried out, saying, If you release this [man] you are not Caesar's friend; every one who makes himself a king, speaks against Caesar.

13. Pilate then hearing this saying, brought jesus forth, and sat down in the tribunal, in a place called the pavement, but in Hebrew, Gab-batha.

14. But it was the preparation of the passover, and about the sixth hour; and he says to the Jews, Behold your King.

15. But they cried out, Away with, away with, crucify him, Pilate says to them, Shall I crucify your King? The chief priests answered, We have no king but Caesar.

16. Then delivered he him therefore to them to be crucified; and they took jesus and led [him] away.

17. And he bearing the cross, went forth into a place called [the place] of a skull, which is called in the Hebrew, Golgotha.

18. Where they crucified him, and two others with him, on this side and on that side, but jesus in the midst.

19. But Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross; but the writing was, jesus of nazareth, THE KING OF THE jews.

20. This title then read many of the Jews, for the place where jesus was crucified was near to the city, and it was written in Hebrew, in Greek, in Latin.

21. Then said the chief priests of the Jews to Pilate, Write not, the King of the Jews; but that he said, I am the King of the Jews.

22. Pilate answered, what I have written I have written.

23. Then the soldiers, when they had crucified jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part, and the coat; but the coat was without seam worked from the top throughout.

24. They said therefore one to another, Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be; that the Scripture might be fulfilled, which says, They parted my garments among them, and for my clothing they did cast lots: these things therefore the soldiers did.

25. But there stood by the cross of jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the [wife of] Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene.

26. jesus then seeing the mother, and the disciple standing by whom he loved, says to his mother, Woman, behold your Son!

27. Then says he to the disciple, Behold your mother! And from that hour the disciple took her to his own.

28. After this jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, says, I thirst.

29. Then there was set a vessel full of vinegar, but they, filling a sponge with vinegar, and putting it upon hyssop, applied it to his mouth.

30. When jesus therefore received the vinegar, he said, It is finished, and bowing the head, he delivered up the Spirit.

31. The Jews therefore, lest the body should remain on the cross on the sabbath, since it was the preparation, (for that day of the sabbath was a great day) besought Pilate that their legs might be broken, and they might be taken away.

32. Then came the soldiers, and break the legs of the first, and of the other that was crucified with him.

33. But coming to jesus, when they saw him already dead, they break not his legs.

34. But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and immediately there came out blood and water.

35. And he that saw bare witness, and his witness is true, and he knows that he says true, that you might believe.

36. For these things came to pass, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, a bone of him shall not be bruised.

37. And again another Scripture says, They shall look on him whom they pierced.

38. But after these things Joseph of Arimathea (being a disciple of jesus, but secretly for fear of the Jews) besought Pilate that he might take away the body of jesus, and Pilate gave leave; he came therefore and took the body of jesus.

39. But there came also Nicodemus, which came to jesus by night privately, bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, a hundred pounds.

40. Then took they the body of jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices as is the custom with the Jews to bury.

41. But in the place where he was crucified there was a garden, and in the garden a new sepulchre, in which no one as yet was laid.

42. There therefore, by reason of the preparation of the Jews because the sepulchre was near, they deposited Jesus.

Exposition

Previously to giving particular extracts concerning the subjects treated of in this chapter, it is thought proper to give the following extract from the Treatise concerning the lord, in which a general idea is delivered of the spiritual meaning of all the lord's sufferings. The extract is as follows:

That the lord himself, as being the grand prophet, represented the state of the church as to the Word, is evident from the parts of his passion, as that he was betrayed by Judas; that he was seized and condemned by the chief priests and elders; that they buffeted him; that they smote his head with a reed; that they set on it a crown of thorns; that they divided his garments and cast lots upon his coat; that they crucified him; that they gave him vinegar to drink; that they pierced his side; that he was buried and rose again on the third day. His being betrayed by Judas signified by the Jewish nation, who at that time were in possession of the Word, for Judas represented that nation; his being seized and condemned by the chief priests and elders signifies that he was so treated by all that church; their beating him with rods, spitting in his face, buffeting him, and smiting his head with a reed, signified that they had done the like with the Word as to its divine truths, all which treat of the lord; their setting a crown of thorns on his head signified that they falsified and adulterated those truths; their dividing his garments and casting lots upon his coat signified that they dispersed all the truths of the Word, but not its spiritual sense, which sense was signified by the lord's' coat; their crucifying him signified that they destroyed and profaned the whole Word; their giving him vinegar to drink signified that they gave him things merely falsified and false, wherefore he did not drink it, and then said, It is consummated; their piercing his side signified that they absolutely extinguished every truth of the Word, and all its good; his burial signified the rejection of the humanity remaining from the mother; his resurrection on the third day signified glorification. Wherefore after that he was scourged and led out, bearing the crown of thorns, and the purple garment put on him by the soldiers, he said, Behold the man, John 19:1, 5; this was said, because by man is signified the church, for by the Son of Man is signified the truth of the church, thus the Word. From these considerations it is now evident, that by bearing iniquities is meant to represent and effigy in himself sins against the divine truth of the Word. That the lord sustained and suffered such things as the Son of Man, and not as the Son of god, will be seen in what follows; for the Son of Man signifies the lord as to the Word. Doc. Lord. 16.

Verse 2. And the soldiers platting a crown of thorns, put it on his head. Thorns signify the falses of concupiscencies, and the crown of thorns platted and set on the Lord's head, when he was crucified, and saluted as the king of the Jews, and when he said Behold the man, represented what was the quality of the divine Word at that time in the Jewish church, namely that it was suffocated by the falses of cravings; the king of the Jews, as he was then saluted by them, signified divine truth; the lord saying on the occasion, behold the man, signified divine truth, what its quality is at this day in the church; for the divine truth proceeding from the lord in heaven is a man, hence heaven is the grand man, and this from influx and correspondence; hence also the celestial church of the lord was called man; this church was what the Jews represented; hence it is evident what was signified by the crown of thorns, also by the salutation, king of the Jews, what also by behold the man;, and likewise what by the inscription on the cross, Jesus of Nazareth the king of the Jews, namely that divine truth or the Word was in such aspect, and so treated by the Jews, with whom the church was. AC 9144.

By the Jews setting a crown of thorns on the Lord's head, and smiting his head, was signified, that they treated with such contumely divine truth itself and divine wisdom; for the Word, which is divine truth itself, and which contains divine wisdom, they falsified and adulterated by traditions, and by applications to themselves, thus desiring a king who might exalt them above all others in the universe; and whereas the kingdom of the lord was not terrestrial but celestial, therefore they perverted all things of the Word, which were said of him, and ridiculed the things which were predicted of him; this was what was represented by their setting a crown of thorns on his head, and by smiting his head. AE 577.

Verses 23, 24. Then the soldiers, when they had crucified Jesus, took his garments, and made four parts, to every soldier a part, and the coat, &c. He who reads these words, supposes that they involve no more of arcanum, than that the garments were divided among the soldiers, and that a lot was cast on the coat, when yet singular things were representative and significative of things divine, namely that the garments were divided into four parts, also that the coat was not divided, but the lot was cast upon it, especially that the coat was without seam and worked from above throughout; for by the coat was signified the divine truth of the lord, which, as being single [unicum] and derived from good, was represented by the coat without seam and worked from above throughout: it was likewise represented, that the lord did not suffer divine truth to be separated into parts, as was done with inferior truths of the church by the Jews. AC 4677.

Who cannot see, if he thinks from reason in any degree enlightened, that the above words signified things divine, and that otherwise they would not have been noticed by David, where it is written, They divided my garments amongst them, and upon my coat they cast lots, Psalm 22:19; but what the words signify cannot be known without the internal sense, thus not without knowledge thence derived, concerning what is signified by garments, what by casting lots upon them or dividing them, what by a coat, and its being without seam or woven throughout, and what by soldiers; from the internal sense it is evident that by garments are signified truths, and that by the garments of the lord divine truths; by casting lots and dividing, to pull to pieces and to dissipate them; by a coat divine truth spiritual from divine celestial truth, the like as was signified by the coat of Aaron, since Aaron represented the lord, so likewise by its being without seam and woven from above throughout; the coat being not divided, signified that divine truth spiritual, proximately proceeding from divine truth celestial, could not be dissipated, because that truth is the internal truth of the Word, such as the angels have in heaven; its being said that soldiers did this, signifies that it was done by those who fought in favour of truths, thus by the Jews themselves, who were in possession of the Word, who nevertheless were of such a quality that they dissipated it; for they had the Word, and still were not willing to be thence instructed, that the lord was the Messiah and the Son of god who was to come, nor in any other internal thing of the Word, but only in what is external, which also they made to favour their loves, which were the loves of self and of the world, thus to favour the lusts thence issuing. These things are signified by the division of the Lord's garments; for whatever the Jews did to the lord represented the state of divine truth and good at that time amongst them, thus that they treated truths divine in like manner as himself; for the lord, when he was in the world, was divine truth itself. AC 9942.

Verses 25, 26, 27. But there stood by the cross of Jesus, his mother, and Jesus seeing his mother and the disciple standing whom he loved, he says to his mother, Woman, behold your son, and to the disciple, behold your mother, &c. By these words is understood, that the lord did not acknowledge Mary for his mother, but the church, wherefore he calls her woman, and the mother of the disciple; the reason why he called her the mother of this disciple, or of John, was, because he represented the church as to the good things of charity, which things are the church in effect itself, therefore it is said that he took her to his own. CL 119.

From the above words it is evident that the lord spoke to his mother, according to what she thought when she saw him on the cross, nevertheless he does not call her mother, but woman, and that he transfers the name of mother to those who are signified by the disciple, wherefore he said to the disciple, behold your mother. AC 2649.

That the good of charity makes the church, is also signified by the above words of the lord to John, "jesus saw his mother and the disciple whom he loved standing near, and he said to his mother, Woman, behold your son; and he said to that disciple, behold your mother; and from that hour that disciple took her to himself;" for by John is meant the good of charity, and by woman and mother the church; and by all the above words, that the church will be where the good of charity is. Heavenly Doctrine, 122. See also AE 821.

Verses 28, 29, 30. After this Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the 8cripture might be fulfilled, says I thirst. Then there was set a vessel full of vinegar, &c. All and singular the things, which are related in the evangelists concerning the lord's passion, in the spiritual sense signify a state of the church at that time in respect to the lord and to the Word; for the lord was the Word because divine truth, and the Jews, as they treated the Word, or divine truth, so they treated the lord, on which subject see above, AE 64, 195; their giving the Lord vinegar mixed with gall, which is also called wine mingled with myrrh, signified what the quality of divine truth from the Word was with the Jewish nation, namely that it was mixed with the false of evil, and thus altogether falsified and adulterated, wherefore he was not willing to drink it; but their giving him afterwards vinegar in a sponge, and encompassing it with hyssop, signified the false principle, such as it was amongst the well-disposed Gentiles, which was grounded in ignorance of truth, containing in it what is good and useful, and since this false principle is accepted of the lord, therefore he drank it; by the hyssop, which they placed around it is signified its purification; the lord saying, I thirst, signifies divine spiritual thirst, which is of divine good and truth in the church, by which is effected the salvation of the human race. AE 519.

Verse 34. But one of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and immediately there came out blood and water. The plenary rejection of divine truth which is from the lord, and which was the lord, is understood by these words in Matthew, "Pilate washed his hands before the people, saying, I am innocent of. the blood of this just one, you will see; and all the people replied, His blood be on us and on our children," Matt 27:24, 25; on which account this is thus described in John, "One of the soldiers with a spear pierced his side, and immediately there came out blood and water;" the reason why water came forth, is, because by water is signified external truth divine, such as is the Word in the letter. AC 9127.

By soldier and soldiers are there understood those who were of the church, and who militated or fought for the lord, those of the Jewish church in particular are there understood, and in general all of the church who are in falses derived from evil: inasmuch as these were signified by the soldiers, therefore they divided the garments of the lord, and cast lots upon his clothing, by which is understood, that the Jewish church dispersed divine truths, which are in the sense of the letter of the Word, but that they could not do the same to the interior truths, or the truths which are in the internal sense; for garments signify truths in the ultimates, see AC 2576, 5248; to divide signifies to dissipate and disperse, AC 4424, 6360; and the clothing interior truths, AC 9049, 9212. AE 38.

Blood and water in the above passage denote divine truth, spiritual and natural, thus the Word in the spiritual and natural sense, and to pierce the Lord's side is to destroy both by falses, as was also done by the Jews; for all things of the lord's passion represented the state of the Jewish church as to the Word, on which subject see the Doctrine of the New Jerusalem concerning the LORD 15 to 17. The reason why by piercing him is signified to destroy the Word by falses, is, because this is said of jesus christ, who is presently called the Son of Man, and by the Son of Man is meant the lord as to the Word, wherefore to pierce the Son of Man is to pierce the Word. AR 26.

The above things were done that they might signify the conjunction of the lord with the human race by the divine truth proceeding from the divine good of his love; for breast signifies divine love; blood and water signify the proceeding divine truth, blood the divine truth which is for the spiritual man, and water the divine truth which is for the natural man; for all things, which are related in the Word concerning the lord's passion, are also significative, see AE 83, 195; and whereas the above things signify his love, and the salvation of man by the divine truth proceeding from him, therefore also the evangelist says, "He that saw bears witness, and his witness is true, and he knows that he says what is true, that you may believe." AE 329.

Verse 35. And he that saw bare witness, &c. Inasmuch as by heart is signified the good of love, and this alone is what acknowledges divine truth, and the Divine [principle] of the lord in his human, and this good is signified by John, therefore also John says that he bears witness to the Word of god and the testimony of jesus christ," Rev 1:2; and in another place, "he that saw bare witness, and his witness is true, and he knows that he says what is true, that you might believe." AE 10.

Verse 39. Bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes. By myrrh is signified truth most external, which is sensual truth, and its perception, on which account the bodies of the dead were formerly anointed with myrrh and aloes, by which anointing was signified the preservation of all goods and truths with man, and likewise resurrection; wherefore also such a substance was applied as signified the ultimate principle of life with man, which ultimate principle is called sensual life: that such things were used in anointing the body of the lord, and that together with them it was wrapped up in linen, and that this custom prevailed amongst the Jews, see John 19:39, 40; but it is to be noted, that those things, which were spoken of the lord himself in the world, are to be understood in a super-eminent sense, wherefore the things mentioned in the above passage signify his divine life in the sensual principle, which is the life proper to the body, and likewise the resurrection of the body. AC 10252.

translator's notes and observations.

Verse 5. Then came Jesus forth, bearing the crown of thorns, and the purple robe, and says to them, Behold the Man! In the common version of the New Testament, these words are supposed to be spoken by Pilate, whose name is therefore inserted in italics, as if he was the speaker on the occasion; but in the original Greek no mention is made of Pilate, and the words are manifestly the words of jesus. See Extract on this verse.

Verse 12. From this Pilate sought to release him. What is here rendered from this, is rendered from now on in the common version of the New Testament, but the expression in the original Greek is ek touton, which is literally from this, relating probably, not to any period of time, but to what the blessed jesus had said in the preceding verse.

Verse 23. But the coat was without seam, worked from the top throughout. What is here rendered from the top, is expressed in the original Greek by the words ek ton enothen which is literally of things from above.

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