Spiritual Meaning of EXODUS 21:22-27
AC 9040. Verses 22-27. And when men shall quarrel, and shall strike a pregnant woman, and her births go forth, and harm is not done, with fining he shall be fined, as the woman‘s master shall lay upon him; and he shall give according to the judges. And if harm is done, then thou shalt give soul for soul, eye for eye tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burning for burning, wound for wound, blow for blow. And when a man shall smite the eye of his manservant, or the eye of his maidservant, and shall destroy it; he shall let him go free for his eye. And if he shall knock out his manservant’s tooth, or his maidservant‘s tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth. "And when men shall quarrel," signifies grievous contention among truths; "and shall strike a pregnant woman," signifies the injuring of the good which is from truth; "and her births go forth," signifies if nevertheless it is confirmed in the natural; "and harm is not done," signifies thus no injury there; "with fining he shall be fined," signifies amendment; "as the woman’s master shall lay upon him," signifies until it agrees with the truth of good; "and he shall give according to the judges," signifies according to what is equitable; "and if harm is done," signifies injury; "then thou shalt give soul for soul," signifies the law of order that thou shalt do to thy neighbor as thou wouldest that he should do to thee, consequently that what thou doest to another shall be done to thyself, "the soul," denotes the spiritual life; "eye for eye," signifies if anything in the interior intellectual; "tooth for tooth," signifies if anything in the exterior intellectual; "hand for hand," signifies if anything of the power of spiritual truth; "foot for foot," signifies if anything of the power of natural truth; "burning for burning," signifies if anything of the affection of love which is interiorly in the will; "wound for wound," signifies if anything of the affection of love which is exteriorly in the will; "blow for blow," signifies if anything of affection in the intellectual - that is to say, if anything of all these be extinguished or injured; "and when a man shall smite the eye of his manservant," signifies if the internal man shall injure the truth of faith in the external or natural man; "or the eye of his maidservant," signifies or the affection of truth therein; "and shall destroy it," signifies if he shall extinguish it; "he shall let him go free for his eye," signifies that it can he longer serve the internal man; "and if he shall knock out his manservant‘s tooth, or his maidservant’s tooth," signifies if he shall destroy truth or the affection of it in the sensuous part; "he shall let him go free for his tooth," signifies that it can no longer serve the internal man.
AC 9041. Add when men shall quarrel. That this signifies grievous contention among truths, is evident from the signification of "quarreling," as being grievous contention; and from the signification of "men (viri)," here men of the sons of Israel, as being those who are of the church and in its truths; in the abstract sense, the truths of the church (n. 9034).
AC 9042. And shall strike a pregnant woman. That this signifies the injuring of the good which is from truth, is evident from the signification of "to strike," as being to injure; and from the signification of "a pregnant woman," as being the formation of good from truth. That this is signified by "a pregnant woman," is because the regeneration of man, which is the generation of the spiritual life in him, is meant in the internal sense of the Word by the generation of his natural life which is from his parents. For when a man is born anew, he is then first conceived, afterward carried as in the womb, and finally is born. And because regeneration, or the generation of spiritual life, is the conjunction of truth and of good, that is, of faith and of charity, therefore by "carrying in the womb" is signified the initiation of truth into good. From this it is plain what is signified by "a pregnant woman," namely, the state of the formation of good from truths. That "the womb" denotes where truth and good lie conceived, (n. 4918, 6433); and that "to be in the womb," and "to come forth from the womb" denote to be regenerated, (n. 4904, 8043); also that "generations" and "births" denote those of faith and charity, (n. 613, 1145, 1255, 2020, 2584, 6239).
 The state of the formation of good from truths is also signified by "a pregnant woman" in Jeremiah:--
Behold I bring them from the land of the north, and I will gather them from the sides of the earth; among them the blind and the lame, she that is pregnant, and she that bringeth forth together (Jer. 31:8);
in the internal sense this treats of a new church from the Lord, in which sense by "bringing them from the land of the north" is signified from an obscure state of faith (n. 3708); by "the sides of the earth from which they shall be gathered" is signified where the truth and good of the church begin, for "the earth" denotes the church (n. 566, 662, 1066, 1067, 1262, 1413, 1607, 1733, 1850, 2117, 2118, 2928, 3355, 4447, 4535, 5577, 8011, 8732), and its "sides" denote where its first and its last are; by "the blind" are signified those who are in ignorance of truth, and yet receive truth when instructed (n. 2383, 6990); by "the lame," those who are in good, but not genuine good because of their ignorance of truth (n. 4302); by "she that is pregnant," those in whom good is being formed by means of truths; and by "she that bringeth forth," those who are in the life of faith in act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919). That such things are here signified can be seen from the fact that otherwise it would have been superfluous and worthless to make mention of "the blind and lame," or of "she that is pregnant, and she that bringeth forth together."
AC 9043. And her births go forth. That this signifies if nevertheless it is confirmed in the natural, is evident from the signification of "going forth," when said of the formation of good from truths, as being to go from the internal or spiritual man into the external or natural; and from the signification of "births," as being goods from truths acknowledged in memory and perception, and thus confirmed; for in the spiritual sense by "bringing forth" is meant to acknowledge in faith and act (n. 3905, 3915, 3919, 6585). The case herein is that the man who is conceived anew, carried as it were in the womb, and born, that is, who is being regenerated, first learns from the doctrine of the church, or from the Word, the things which are of faith and charity, which he then stores up among the memory-knowledges that are in the memory which belongs to the external or natural man. From this they are called forth into the internal man, and are stored up in its memory. That man has two memories (n. 2469-2494). This is the beginning of spiritual life with the man, but he is not yet regenerated. In order to be regenerated, the external or natural man must be in compliance, and consequently in agreement, with his internal man. That a man has not been regenerated until his external or natural man has also been regenerated, (n. 8742-8747); and that the external man is regenerated through the internal by the Lord, (n. 3286, 3321, 3493, 4588, 5651, 6299, 8746); and also that the whole man has been regenerated when his natural has been regenerated, (n. 7442, 7443). Seeing then that the things which belong to regeneration are expressed in the Word by the things which belong to the generation or birth of man from his parents in the world, it can be seen from the process of regeneration above described what is meant or signified in the spiritual sense by "conception," by "gestation in the womb," and what by "going forth from the womb," and by "birth;" namely, that "going forth from the womb" denotes to go from the internal man into the external or natural, and that "birth" denotes spiritual good, that is, the good of charity formed from the truths of faith, going forth from the internal man into the external or natural man. When good is in the natural man, the man is a new man; his life is then from good, and his form is from truths derived from good; and he is like an angel, for the angels have their life from good, and their form from truths, which form is the human form. But to the natural man this is a paradox.
AC 9044. And harm is not done. That this signifies thus no injury there, namely, in the natural, is evident without explication.
AC 9045. With fining he shall be fined. That this signifies amendment, is evident from the signification of "to be fined," as being amendment, for a fine is for the sake of amendment.
AC 9046. As the woman‘s master shall lay upon him. That this signifies until it agrees with the truth of good, is evident from the signification of "as he shall lay upon him," when spoken of a fine, as being amendment even to satisfaction, thus until there is agreement; from the signification of "the master," that is, of the woman, as being truth; and from the signification of "the woman," as being good. For in the spiritual sense of the Word "the master," or "man (vir)," signifies truth, and "the woman" good, because by the marriage of a man with a woman is represented the marriage of truth and good (n. 915, 2517, 4510, 4823). By "amendment until there is agreement," is meant restoration for the injury occasioned by the untimely birth; in the spiritual sense, that is occasioned by the bringing forth or thrusting out, not in right order, of good derived from truths, by the internal man into the external or natural man. Restoration is made when they afterward come into agreement, and they do this when the external or natural man does not act from itself, but from the internal man; or when the spiritual acts in the natural, as the soul in its body. When this comes to pass, the external or natural lives from the life of the internal, and this is the new life, or life of the regenerated man.
AC 9047. And he shall give according to the judges. That this signifies according to what is equitable, is evident from the signification of "the judges," as being those who decide and decree from what is just and fair; consequently "to give according to the judges," or before the judges, denotes according to what is equitable, thus neither more nor less; if more, they shall make it equal, also if less.
AC 9048. And if harm done. That this signifies injury, is evident without explication.
AC 9049. Then thou shalt give soul for soul. That this signifies the law of order that thou shalt do to thy neighbor as thou wouldest have another do to thee, consequently that what thou doest to another shall be done to thee, is evident from the fact that "to give soul for soul, eye for eye, tooth for tooth," and so forth, denotes that as thou hast done to another so shall it be done to thee. The reason why this law was given to the sons of Israel, is that such is the law in the spiritual world. He who there does good to another from the heart, receives the like good. Consequently he who does evil to another from the heart, receives the like evil. For good that is from the heart is conjoined with its reward, and evil that is from the heart is conjoined with its punishment; consequently there is heaven for the good, and hell for the evil. That this is so, it has been given me to know from much experience. The case herein is this. With him who does good from the heart, there inflows from heaven on every side, good into the heart and soul of him who does it, and by inspiring inspires it; and then at the same time the affection of love for the neighbor to whom he does good is increased, and with this affection a delight which is heavenly and unutterable. The cause of this is that in heaven the good of love from the Lord reigns universally, and constantly flows in according to the degree in which it is practised toward another. The case is similar in respect to evil. With him who from the heart does evil to another, there inflows from hell on every side evil into the heart of him who does it, and by exciting excites it; and then at the same time the affection of the love of self is increased, and with it the delight of hatred and revenge against those who do not submit themselves. The cause of this is that in hell the evil of the love of self reigns universally, and constantly flows in according to the degree in which it is practised toward another. When this occurs, the punishers are at once present, who ill-treat the offender; and thereby the evil with its delight is restrained.
 These things are so for the reason that the laws of order in the other life are not learned from books, and stored up therefrom in the memory, as with men in the world, but are written on hearts, the laws of evil on the heart of the evil, and the laws of good on the heart of the good. For every man carries with him into the other life that which by his life in the world he had set in his heart; namely, evil with the evil; and good with the good.
 The law of order from which these things flow is that which the Lord taught in Matthew:--
All things whatsoever ye would that men should do to you, do ye even so to them; this is the law and the prophets (Matt. 7:12; Luke 6:31).
Order is from the Divine truth which proceeds from the Lord. The laws of order in heaven are truths from good, and in hell are truths separated from good. They are said to be separated, not by reason of the Lord, but by reason of man. Good is separated by the non-reception of it.
 The law which is called "the law of retaliation," is thus described in Leviticus:--
He that smiteth the soul of a beast shall restore it, soul for soul; if a man shall cause a blemish in his neighbor; as he hath done, so shall it be done to him; breach for breach, eye for eye, tooth for tooth; as he shall cause a blemish in a man, so shall it he rendered unto him. He that smiteth a beast shall restore it; and he that smiteth a man shall be killed (Leviticus 24:18-21).
As evil carries with it its penalty, it is therefore said by the Lord that "evil must not be resisted," and at the same time in the following words in Matthew it is explained how the case is with this law in the spiritual world, with those who are in good, relatively to those who are in evil:--
Ye have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth; but I say unto you, Resist not evil; but whosoever shall strike thee on thy right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if any man would drag thee to law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. And whosoever shall compel thee to go one mile, go with him twain. Give to everyone that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away (Matt. 5:38-42).
 Who cannot see that these words are not to be understood according to the sense of the letter? For who will turn the left cheek to him who deals a blow on the right cheek? And who will give his cloak to him who would take away his coat? And who will give his property to all who ask? And who will not resist evil? But no one can understand these words who does not know what is signified by "the right cheek" and "the left cheek," what by "a coat" and "a cloak," also what by "a mile," and likewise by "borrowing," and so on. The subject there treated of is spiritual life, or the life of faith; not natural life, which is the life of the world. The Lord there opens, and also in this chapter, and the following, the interior things that belong to heaven, but by means of such things as are in the world. The reason why He did so by such things, was that not worldly men, but only heavenly men, should understand. The reason why worldly men were not to understand, was lest they should profane the interior things of the Word, for by so doing they would cast themselves into the most frightful hell of all, which is the hell of the profaners of the Word. Therefore it is said by the Lord in Luke:--
Unto you it is given to know the mysteries of the kingdom of God; but to the rest in parables; that seeing they may not see, and hearing they may not hear (Luke 8:10).
And in John:--
Isaiah said, He hath blinded their eyes, and hardened their heart; that they may not see with their eyes, and understand with their heart, and should convert themselves, and I should heal them (John 12:39, 40);
it is said "lest I should heal them," because they who are healed and return again to falsities and evils, commit profanation. These are they who are meant in (Matthew 12:43-45).
 But it shall now be told what is meant in the internal sense by the words of the Lord above quoted. In this sense it there treats of those who wish to destroy by means of falsities the truths of faith, thus the spiritual life with a man when he is in temptations, and in persecutions; and in good spirits when they are in infestations by evil spirits. By "the cheek" is signified the affection of interior truth, by "the right cheek" the affection of truth from good; by "dealing a blow" is signified the act of injuring this affection; by "coat" and "cloak" is signified truth in the external form (n. 4677, 4741, 4742); by "dragging to law" is signified the endeavor to destroy; by "a mile" is signified that which leads to truth, for the like is signified by "a mile" as by "a way". That "a way" denotes that which leads to truth, (n. 627, 2333, 3477); by "lending" is signified to instruct. From this it is plain what is signified by "giving to all who ask," namely, to confess all things of one’s faith in the Lord. The reason therefore why evil ought not to be resisted, is that evil does no harm to those who are in truth and good, for they are protected by the Lord.
 These are the things which have been hidden under the above words of the Lord; and this being the case, the Lord only says, "Ye have heard that it was said, An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth," but says no more; because by "an eye" is signified the interior truth of faith; and by "a tooth," the exterior truth of faith, as will be seen in what follows. From all this it is evident in what manner the Lord spake when He was in the world, namely, that He spake, as everywhere in the Word of the Old Testament, at the same time for the angels in heaven, and for men in the world; for His speech was in itself Divine and heavenly, because it was from the Divine, and through heaven. But the things which He spake were presented by means of such things as corresponded in the world. What they correspond to, the internal sense teaches.
 That "to deal a blow" or "to smite the cheek" denotes to destroy truths, is plain from passages in the Word where mention is made of "smiting the cheek." And because in the genuine sense this signifies the destruction of truth, therefore in the opposite sense it signifies the destruction of falsity, in which sense it occurs in these passages:--
Thou wilt smite all mine enemies on the cheek; Thou wilt break the teeth of the wicked (Ps. 3:7).
They shall smite the judge of Israel with a rod upon the cheek (Micah 5:1).
The bridle of him that leadeth astray shall be on the cheeks of the peoples (Isa. 30:28).
For "the face" signifies the affections (n. 4796, 4797, 4799, 5102, 5695, 6604), consequently those things which belong to the face signify such things as belong to the affections, and correspond to their functions and uses; as the "eye" signifies the understanding of truth, the "nostrils" the perception of truth, those things which belong to the mouth, as the "jaws," the "lips," the "tongue," signify such thing as relate to the utterance of truth (n. 4796-4805).
AC 9050. That "soul" signifies the spiritual life, is evident from the signification of "soul," as being the life of man, but the life of his faith, which is spiritual life. In the Word throughout mention is made of "the heart" and of "the soul," and by "the heart" is signified the life of love, and by "the soul" the life of faith. Man has two faculties receptive of life from the Lord, the one called the will, and the other the understanding. To the faculty which is called the will belongs love, for the goods of love make its life. But to the faculty which is called the understanding belongs faith, for the truths of faith make its life. But these two lives with man are nevertheless one, and when they are one, then the things which are of faith are also of love, for they are loved; and on the other hand the things which are of love are also of faith, because they are believed. Such is the life of all in heaven.
 The reason why the life of love, or what is the same thing, the will, is called in the Word "the heart and why the life of faith, or what is the same thing, the understanding, is called "the soul;" is that they who are in love to the Lord and are called celestial, constitute in the Grand Man or heaven the province of the heart; and they who are in faith in the Lord and thereby in charity toward the neighbor constitute the province of the lungs (n. 3635, 3883-3896). From this it is that by "heart" in the Word is signified love, which is the life of the will, and by "soul" is signified faith, which is the life of the understanding (n. 2930, 7542, 8910); for in the original tongue "soul" is named from breathing, which is of the lungs.
 That faith pertains to the intellectual faculty, is because this faculty is enlightened by the Lord when man receives faith. From this he has light, or a perception of truth, in such things as are of faith, when he reads the Word. And that love pertains to the will faculty, is because this faculty is kindled by the Lord when the man receives love. From this he has the fire of life, and a sensitive perception of good.
 From all this it can be seen what is properly meant in the Word by "the heart," and what by "the soul;" as in the following passages:--
Thou shalt love Jehovah thy God from all thy heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy strength (Deut. 6:5).
Thou shalt love Jehovah thy God, and shalt serve Him, from all thy heart and from all thy soul (Deut. 10:12; 11:13).
These statutes and judgments thou shalt keep, and shalt do them, in all thy heart, and in all thy soul (Deut. 26:16).
Jesus said, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God from all thy heart, and in all thy soul, and with all thy strength, and with thy thought (Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, 32; Luke 10:27).
"The heart" denotes the life of love; and "the soul," the life of faith; "the strength," those things which proceed from the life of love, thus which are from the heart or the will; and "the thought," those things which proceed from the life of faith, thus which are from the soul, or an enlightened understanding.
 In like manner in Isaiah:--
A deluded heart maketh him go astray, that he rescue not his soul, and say, Is there not a lie in my right hand? (Isa. 44:20).
I will rejoice over them to do them good, and I will plant them in the land, in truth, with all My heart and with all My soul (Jer. 32:41);
speaking of Jehovah, that is, of the Lord; "the heart" is predicated of the Divine good, which is of love of mercy; and "the soul" is predicated of the Divine truth, which is of faith with man.
 That these things are signified by "heart" and "soul" in the Word, is at this day known to few within the church, for the reason that it has not been considered that man has two faculties distinct from each other, namely, the will and the understanding, and that these two faculties constitute one mind, in order that man may be truly man. Neither has it been considered that all things in the universe, both in heaven and in the world, bear relation to good and truth, and that they must be conjoined together in order that they may be anything, and produce anything. From ignorance of these things it has resulted that they have separated faith from love; for he who is ignorant of these universal laws cannot know that faith bears relation to truth, and love to good, and that unless these are conjoined together they are not anything; for faith without love is not faith, and love without faith is not love, because love has its quality from faith, and faith has its life from love; consequently faith without love is dead, and faith with love is alive. That this is so, can be seen from everything in the Word; for where faith is treated of, there also love is treated of, in order that in this way the marriage of good and truth, that is, that heaven, and in the supreme sense the Lord, may be in each and all things of the Word. That there is such a marriage, (n. 683, 793, 801, 2516, 2712, 4138, 5138, 5502, 6343, 7945, 8339). From all this it is now evident why the man of the church has not hitherto known what is meant in the Word by "heart," and what by "soul."
 That" soul" in the Word denotes the life of faith, can be plainly seen from the passages where "the soul" is mentioned, as in the following. In Moses:--
Thou shalt not take the mill or the upper millstone to pledge; for he taketh the soul to pledge (Deut. 24:6).
It is said that "he who taketh a mill taketh the soul to pledge" because in the internal sense by "a mill" are signified those things which are of faith (n. 7780). In Isaiah:--
It shall be as when a hungry man dreameth, as if he were eating; but when he awaketh, his soul is fasting; or as when a thirsty man dreameth, as if he were drinking; but when he awaketh, behold he is weary, and his soul hath appetite (Isa. 29:8);
"a fasting soul," and "a soul that hath appetite," denote the desire of learning the goods and truths of faith. In the same:--
If thou draw out thy soul to the hungry, and sate the afflicted soul (Isa. 58:10);
"to draw out thy soul to the hungry" denotes to be desirous to instruct in the truths of faith; and "to sate the afflicted soul" denotes to instruct in the good of faith.
 In Jeremiah:--
Though thou clothest thyself with double-dyed, though thou deckest thee with ornament of gold, though thou rendest thine eyes with antimony, in vain shalt thou make thyself beauteous; thy lovers will abhor thee, they will seek thy soul (Jer. 4:30);
here "soul" denotes the life of faith, consequently faith itself in man, because this makes his spiritual life. That faith is meant by "soul," is plain from the particulars in this verse. In the same:--
They shall come and sing in the height of Zion, and shall flow together unto the good of Jehovah, to the wheat, and to the new wine, and to the oil, and to the sons of the flock and of the herd; and their soul shall become as a watered garden; I will water the weary soul, and every sorrowful soul (Jer. 31:12, 25);
"the soul" denotes the life of faith in the man of the church, who is said "to become as a garden," because by "a garden" is signified the intelligence which is from the truths of faith (n. 100, 108, 2702); and the soul is said to be "watered," because by "being watered" is signified to be instructed.
 In the same:--
We bring our bread with the peril of our souls, because of the sword of the wilderness (Lam. 5:9);
"the peril of souls" denotes the danger of the loss of faith and consequently of spiritual life; for "the sword of the wilderness" denotes falsity fighting against the truths of faith (n. 2799, 4499, 6353, 7102, 8294). In Ezekiel:--
Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, these were thy traders, with the soul of man, and with vessels of brass, they furnished thy trading (Ezek. 27:13);
"the soul of man" denotes the interior truth of faith from good; "vessels of brass," exterior truths of faith from good; "vessels" denoting exterior truths or memory-truths (n. 3068, 3079), and "brass," the good of the natural (n. 425, 1551). Unless it were known that "the soul of man" denotes faith, it could not be understood what is signified by "trading with the soul of man, and with vessels of brass."
 In the same:--
Every living soul that creepeth, whithersoever the rivers shall come, shall live; whence is exceeding much fish; because these waters are come hither, and are healed (Ezek. 47:9);
speaking of the new temple, that is, of a new spiritual church from the Lord; "the living soul that creepeth" denotes memory-truths which are of faith; "much fish from thence" denotes memory-knowledges (n. 40, 991); "rivers" denote the things that are of intelligence, which are from the truths of faith (n. 2702, 3051). Neither in this passage would it be known without the internal sense what is meant by "much fish" in consequence of the rivers coming thither. Again:--
Save me, O God, for the waters are come even unto my soul (Ps. 69:1).
The waters compassed me about, even to my soul (Jonah 2:5).
In these passages "waters" denote falsities, and also temptations which are caused by injected falsities (n. 705, 739, 756, 790, 8137, 8138, 8368).
 In Jeremiah:--
Jehovah said, Shall not My soul be avenged on such a nation as this? (Jer. 5:9, 29).
Admit chastisement, O Jerusalem, lest My soul be turned away from thee, and I make thee a waste (Jer. 6:8).
"The soul," when predicated of the Lord, denotes Divine truth. In John:--
The second angel poured out his vial into the sea, and it became blood as of a dead man, whence every living soul died in the sea (Rev. 16:3);
"the sea" denotes memory-knowledges in the complex (n. 28); "blood," the truths of faith from good, and in the opposite sense, the truths of faith falsified and profaned (n. 4735, 6978, 7317, 7326); consequently "living soul" denotes life derived from faith.
 In Matthew:--
Be not anxious for your soul, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink (Matt. 6:26);
"soul" denotes the truths of faith; "eating" and "drinking" denote to be instructed in the good and truth of faith, for here in the internal sense the subject treated of is spiritual life and its nourishment. Again:--
Whoever will find his soul shall lose it, and whoever shall lose his soul for My sake shall find it (Matt. 10:39);
"the soul" denotes the life of faith such as it is with those who believe, and in the opposite sense the life not of faith such as it is with those who do not believe. In Luke:--
In your patience possess ye your souls (Luke 21:19);
"to possess the souls" denotes those things which are of faith and consequently of spiritual life. The signification is similar in very many other passages.
AC 9051. Eye for eye. That this signifies if they shall injure anything in the interior intellectual, is evident from the signification of "the eye," as being the understanding, here the interior understanding, the life of which is the life of faith. Man has an exterior understanding, and an interior understanding. The exterior understanding is where the thought is that comes to perception; but the interior understanding is where the thought is that does not come to perception; nevertheless it does come to the perception of angels. This latter understanding is that which is enlightened by the Lord when man receives faith, for it is in the light of heaven, and in it is the spiritual life of man, which is not so manifest to him in the world, but is manifest in the other life, when the man becomes an angel among the angels in heaven. Meanwhile this life lies hidden within the thought of the exterior understanding, and produces therein a holy and reverent feeling for the Lord, for love and faith in Him, for the Word, and for all other things of the church. The reason why "the eye" denotes the understanding, is that the eye corresponds to the understanding, for the understanding seas by virtue of the light of heaven, but the eye by virtue of the light of the world. Those things which the former eye or understanding sees are spiritual, and the field of its view is the memory-knowledge in man‘s memory. But the things which the external eye sees are earthly, and the field of its view is everything that appears in the world. That in the spiritual sense "the eye" denotes the understanding, and also faith, is because faith makes the life of the interior understanding (n. 2701, 4403, 4421, 4523-4534).
 He who does not know that the understanding is meant in the Word by "the eye," cannot know what is signified by what the Lord spake concerning the eye in the Evangelists, as by these words:--
If thy right eye causeth thee to stumble, pluck it out; it is good for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, rather than having two eyes to be cast into the Gehenna of fire (Mark 9:47; Matt. 5:29);
everyone knows that the eye is not to be plucked out, though it cause one to stumble, and that no one enters into the kingdom of God with one eye; but by "the right eye" is signified falsity of faith concerning the Lord, and this is what is to be plucked out. Again:--
The light of the body is the eye, if therefore thine eye be simple, thy whole body shall be full of light. Out if thine eye be evil, thy whole body shall be darkened. If therefore the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is the darkness (Matt. 6:22, 23; Luke 11:34).
Neither in this passage is the eye meant by "eye," but the understanding of the truth of faith. Hence the eye is called "the light of the body," and it is said, if the light that is in thee be darkness, how great is the darkness," for in the spiritual sense "darkness" denotes falsities of faith (n. 1839, 1860, 4418, 4531, 7688, 7711).
 And again:--
Why beholdest thou the mote that is in thy brothers eye, but understandest not the beam that is in thine own eye? (Matt. 7:3-5);
"to behold a mote in the eye of a brother" denotes something erroneous in respect to the understanding of truth; and "the beam in one’s own eye" denotes the huge evil of falsity; for in the internal sense "wood" denotes good, and in the opposite sense evil (n. 643, 2784, 2812, 3720, 8354). Moreover in the other life good is represented by a beam; and therefore those who feign good in themselves seem to carry a beam, and thus go safely. Without this signification of "the eye," and of "a beam," what could be meant by "seeing a beam in the eye?" If it is not known that in the Word "the eye" denotes the understanding of truth, which is faith, neither can it be known what is involved in what the Lord did when He healed a blind man, that is, when "He spat on the ground and made clay of the spittle, and said unto him, Wash thee in the pool of Siloam" (John 9:6, 7). As the Lord‘s miracles, like all Divine miracles, involved those things which are of the Lord’s kingdom and church (n. 7337, 8364), so also does this.
AC 9052. Tooth for tooth. That this signifies if anything in the exterior intellectual, is evident from the signification of "a tooth," as being the exterior intellectual, and therefore natural truth, for this makes the life of this understanding. That "the teeth" have this signification is because they grind like a mill, and thus prepare, the food which is to nourish the body; here the food which is to nourish the soul. The food which nourishes the soul is intelligence and wisdom. This is first received, ground, and prepared by means of the knowledges of truth and good in the natural. That it is intelligence and wisdom which is called "spiritual and celestial food," (n. 56-58, 680, 1480, 4792, 5147, 5293, 5340, 5342, 5576, 5579, 5915, 8562, 9003). From this it is plain whence it is that "the teeth" signify the exterior understanding. What the exterior understanding is can be seen from what was shown just above (n. 9051) concerning the interior understanding.
 That "the teeth" signify natural truth, which belongs to the exterior understanding, and in the opposite sense the falsity which destroys this truth, is evident from the following passages in the Word. That they signify natural truth, in Moses:--
His eyes shall be redder than wine, and his teeth whiter than milk (Gen. 49:12);
here also both "eyes" and "teeth" are mentioned together. The subject treated of is Judah, by whom is meant the Lord as to the Divine celestial (n. 6363); "the eyes" signify the Divine intellectual of the Lord (n. 6379); and "the teeth," His Divine natural (n. 6380), thus also the Divine truth in the natural.
 In Amos:--
I have given you emptiness of teeth in all your cities, and lack of bread in all your places (Amos 4:6);
"emptiness of teeth" denotes scarcity of truth; and "lack of bread," scarcity of good. From all this it is evident what is meant by the "gnashing of teeth" among those who are in hell (Matt. 8:12; 13:42, 50; 22:13; 25:30; Luke 13:28), namely, the collision of falsities with the truths of faith. For as before said, "the teeth," in the opposite sense, signify the falsity which destroys truth; as in David:--
Arise, O Jehovah; save me, O my God; for Thou wilt smite all mine enemies on the jaw; Thou wilt break the teeth of the wicked (Ps. 3:7);
"to break the teeth of the wicked" denotes to break the falsities by which they destroy truths. In the same:--
As to my soul I lie in the midst of lions, their teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword (Ps. 57:4);
"the teeth of lions" denote the falsities that destroy truths; "lions," falsities from evil in their power (n. 6367, 6369).
 In the same:--
Destroy their teeth, O God, in their mouth; turn aside the grinders of the young lions (Ps. 58:6).
A nation is come up upon My land, strong, and without number; his teeth are the teeth of a lion, and he hath the grinders of a great lion. He hath reduced My vine to a waste; and My fig-tree into froth (Joel 1:6, 7);
"teeth" and "grinders" denote the falsities that destroy the truths of the church; a "vine" denotes the spiritual church (n. 1069, 5113, 6376); and a "fig-tree" its natural good (n. 217, 4231, 5113). That "teeth" have this signification is plain also from the fact that they are attributed to a nation which will lay waste. In John:--
The shapes of the locusts were like unto horses prepared for war; they had hair as the hair of women, and their teeth were as the teeth of lions (John 9:7, 8);
"locusts" denote those who are in external falsities (n. 7643), from which it is also evident that "teeth" denote falsities that destroy truths.
AC 9053. Hand for hand. That this signifies if anything of the power of spiritual truth was injured or extinguished by them, is evident from the signification of "hand," as being the power that is from truth (n. 3091, 3387, 4931-4937, 6292, 6947, 7188, 7189, 7518, 7673, 8050, 8153, 8281); that it signifies the power which is from spiritual truth, see (n. 5327, 5328, 7011).
AC 9054. Foot for foot. That this signifies if anything of the power of natural truth, is evident from the signification of "foot," as being the natural (n. 2162, 3147, 3761, 3986, 4280, 4938-4952). that it signifies the power of natural truth see (n. 5327, 5328).
AC 9055. Burning for burning. That this signifies if anything of the affection of love which is interiorly in the will, is evident from the signification of "burning," as being the injuring or extinction of the good of love. It is said "in the will," because the good which is of love is of the will, and the truth which is of faith is of the understanding (n. 9050, 9051). That it signifies interiorly in the will, is because a "wound" signifies the injury or extinction that belongs to love exteriorly in the will. For here, as in what precedes, the subject treated of is the injuries which are done in both the internal man and the external man, because the injuring of the interior understanding is signified by "the eye," and the injuring of the exterior understanding by "the tooth;" and the injuring of the power of truth of the internal man by "the hand," and the injuring of the power of the external man by "the foot;" as has been shown. Thus here the injuring of the will of the internal man is signified by "burning," and that of the external man by "wound."
 Man has an internal will and an external will, as he has an internal and an external understanding (n. 9050, 9051). The internal will is where the internal understanding is, and the external will is where the external understanding is, because they must be conjoined. For where truth is, there is good; and where good is, there is truth; because truth without good is not truth, and good without truth is not good, for good is the being of truth, and truth is the coming-forth of good. The case is similar with the understanding and the will of man, for the understanding has been allotted to the reception of truth, and the will to the reception of good. Hence it is plain that when man is being regenerated, a new understanding is given him by the Lord by means of the truths of faith, and a new will by means of the good of charity; and that there must be both, and moreover that they must be conjoined, in order that man may be regenerated.
 The reason why "burning" signifies the injuring of the good of love, is that by "fire" is signified love (n. 934, 2446, 4906, 5071, 5215, 6314, 6832, 6834, 6849, 7324, 7575, 7852), and the injuring of the good of love is concupiscence from the love of self; that this is called "burning," (n. 1297, 5215). Concupiscence is signified by "burning" also in Isaiah:--
Instead of spice there shall be rottenness; and instead of a girdle a rent; and instead of curls baldness; and instead of a gown a girding of sackcloth; burning instead of beauty (Isa. 3:24);
speaking of the daughter of Zion, by whom is signified the celestial church, that is, the church which is in love to the Lord; "burning" here denotes the evil of concupiscence from the love of self.
 He who does not know that there is an internal sense in the Word, believes that the proud ornaments of the daughters of Zion, mentioned in that chapter (Isa. 3:16-24), signify such ornaments, and that on account of such ornaments among the daughters of Zion, the Jewish and Israelitish people were punished and fell by the sword, as is said in the same chapter (Isa. 3:25, 26); but the case is very different. The spiritual and celestial things of that church are signified by those ornaments. That by "the daughter of Zion" is not meant in the Word any daughter of Zion, can be seen by everyone who reads the Word, provided he consults and considers the passages in the prophets where mention is made of "Zion" and of "the daughter of Zion," from which he will see that "the daughter of Zion" denotes the church.
AC 9056. Wound for wound. That this signifies if anything of the affection of love which is exteriorly in the will, is evident from the signification of "wound," as being the injuring of the affection which is of love; and because it is of love, it is of the will, for love is of the will. The reason why it is of the exterior will, is that by "burning" is signified the injuring of the affection which is interiorly in the will (n. 9055). In the Word a distinction is made between "wound" and "blow," "wound" being predicated of the injuring of good, and "blow" of the injuring of truth, as in Isaiah:--
From the sole of the foot even unto the head there is no soundness in it; but wound, and bruise, and fresh blow; they have not been pressed out, nor bound up, nor mollified with oil (Isa. 1:6);
where "wound" is predicated of destroyed good, and "blow" of destroyed truth.
AC 9057. Blow for blow. That this signifies if anything of affection in the intellectual be extinguished or injured, is evident from the signification of "a blow," as being the extinction or injuring of affection in the intellectual, that is, of the affection of truth. In the original tongue "blow" is expressed by a term which signifies the black and blue from a collection of blood or of bloody matter, and in the internal sense "blood" denotes the truth of faith from the good of love, and in the opposite sense, truth falsified and profaned (n. 4735, 6978, 7317, 7326); consequently "blow for blow" denotes truth injured or extinguished. This is also signified by the "blows" (or "plagues") in (Revelation 9:20; 11:6; 15:1, 6, 8; 16:21; 18:8; Jeremiah 30:12, 14, 17; 50:13; Zechariah 14:12-15; Ps. 38:5; Luke 10:30-35), in the parable of him that fell among thieves, who inflicted blows on him and left him half dead; and it is said that a Samaritan "bound up his blows," pouring in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast, and brought him to an inn.
 He who understands the internal sense of the Word is able to know why it was said by the Lord that the Samaritan "bound up the blows, poured in oil and wine, and set him on his own beast." For by "the Samaritan" in the internal sense is meant one who is in the affection of truth, by "binding up the blows" is signified the healing of this affection when injured, by "pouring in oil and wine" is signified the good of love and the good of faith, and by "setting him on his own beast" is signified uplifting him by virtue of his own intellectual. Thus by these words is described charity toward the neighbor; naturally for man in the world, and spiritually for the angels in heaven; naturally in the sense of the letter, and spiritually in the internal sense. The reason why a "Samaritan" denotes one who is in the affection of truth, is that "Samaritan" in the Word signifies this affection. That "oil" denotes the good of love, (n. 886, 3728, 4582); also that "wine" denotes the good of faith, (n. 1798, 6377); and that "a beast of burden" denotes the intellectual, (n. 2761, 2762, 2781, 3217, 5391, 5741, 6125, 6401, 6534, 7024, 8146, 8148). In this manner spake the Lord; but few apprehend this, for they believe that such things were said merely for the sake of giving the parable the connection of a narrative; but in this case they would not be words from the Divine. All words from the Divine have within them such things as belong to the Lord, heaven, and the church, and this is the case in every jot (n. 9049).
AC 9058. And when a man shall smite the eye of his manservant. That this signifies if the internal man shall injure the truth of faith in the external man, is evident from the signification of "smiting," as being to injure; from the signification of "man (vir)," here a man of the sons of Israel, as being one who is of the church and consequently is in spiritual truth, which is the truth of faith (n. 9034), thus the internal man, for the truth of faith is in the internal man and makes its life, which is called spiritual life - it is said "the internal man" on account of its relation to the external man, which is signified by "manservant;" from the signification of "the eye," as being the interior intellectual, and therefore the truth of faith (n. 9051); and from the signification of "manservant," as being the memory-truth which is in the external man (n. 1895, 2567, 3835, 3849, 8993, 8994), thus also the external or natural man (n. 5305, 7998, 8974). In the sense of the letter it is said "a man" and his "servant," and thus there are meant two persons; but in the internal sense, in which "man" denotes the internal man, and "servant" the external man, they are in one person. The reason is that in the internal sense no attention is paid to persons, but only to things (n. 5225, 5287, 5434, 8343, 8985, 9007).
AC 9059. Or the eye of his maidservant. That this signifies or if he shall injure the affection of truth therein, is evident from the signification of "the eye," as being the intellectual, and consequently the truth of faith (n. 9058); and from the signification of a "maidservant," as being the affection of natural truth (n. 2567, 3835, 3849, 8993).
AC 9060. And shall destroy it. That this signifies so as to extinguish it, is evident from the signification of "destroying," when the subject treated of is the truth of faith, which is signified by "the eye," as being to extinguish.
AC 9061. He shall let him go free for his eye. That this signifies that it can no longer serve the internal man, is evident from the signification of "letting go free," as being to dismiss from service; and from the signification of "for his eye," which he had destroyed in the manservant, as being on account of the truth of faith extinguished in the external or natural man; for "the eye" denotes the intellectual, and consequently the truth of faith (n. 9058, 9059), "to destroy" denotes to extinguish (n. 9060), and a "manservant" denotes the external or natural man (n. 9058). How the case herein is cannot be known unless it is known how the case is with the internal man relatively to the external man. The internal man cannot live a spiritual life unless the external man is in agreement; and therefore a man cannot be regenerated unless the natural man also is regenerated. From this it follows that if the truth of faith in the natural or external man shall be extinguished, it cannot any longer serve the internal man.
 It is the same with the external sight relatively to the internal sight. If the external sight has been injured, it cannot any longer serve the internal sight; for if the external sight distorts objects, the internal cannot see by means of it except with distortion. The case is the same with all the other members which are subject to the will, as with the arms, the hands, the fingers, the feet. If these are distorted, the will cannot act through them except in a distorted way. It is the same in the case of the natural or external man relatively to the internal man: if the memory-truths in the external or natural man are perverted or extinguished, the internal man cannot see truth, thus cannot think and perceive except pervertedly or falsely. From all this it is evident why the natural man must be regenerated in order that the man may be regenerated (n. 3286, 3321, 3469, 3493, 3573, 3620, 3623, 3679, 4588, 4618, 4667, 5165, 5168, 5427, 5428, 5477, 6299, 6564, 8742-8747, 9043).
AC 9062. And if he shall knock out his manservant‘s tooth, or his maidservant’s tooth. That this signifies if he shall destroy truth or the affection of it in the sensuous man, is evident from the signification of "tooth," as being the exterior intellectual, and consequently truth in the natural man (n. 9052), here truth in the ultimate of the natural, that is, in the sensuous, because it is said of a manservant and of a maidservant; from the signification of a "maidservant," as being the affection of this truth (n. 9059); and from the signification of "knocking out," as being to destroy. What the sensuous is, and what is its quality, (n. 4009, 5077, 5079, 5084, 5089, 5091, 5125, 5128, 5580, 5767, 6183, 6201, 6310, 6311, 6313, 6315, 6316, 6564, 6598, 6612, 6614, 6622, 6624, 6948, 6949, 7693).
AC 9063. He shall let him go free for his tooth. That this signifies that it can no longer serve the internal man, is evident from the signification of "letting go free," as being to dismiss from service, thus no longer to serve (n. 9061); and from the signification of "tooth," as being the sensuous (n. 9062). How the case herein is can be known from what was shown just above (n. 9061) concerning the state of the internal man when the external has been injured. The case is similar with the sensuous when it is injured, for this is the ultimate in the natural man. That this also must be regenerated in order that the man may be fully regenerated, (n. 6844, 6845, 7645). That these statutes which were enacted concerning the eye and the tooth of a manservant or a maidservant, contain in them arcana which no one can see except by means of the internal sense, can be seen by everyone. For without some secret reason what would be the sense of decreeing that servants should be let go free for their eye or their tooth, and not for the sake of other members, when these should be injured or destroyed? But the secret reason is apparent when it is known what is signified in the spiritual sense by an "eye" and by a "tooth." When this is known, the reason for the statute comes to light. EXODUS 21:22-27 previous - next - text - summary - Exodus - Full Page
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