Spiritual Meaning of EXODUS 28:36-38
AC 9929. Verses 36-38. And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and engrave upon it with the engraving of a signet, Holiness to Jehovah. And thou shalt put it upon a thread of blue, and it shall be upon the miter; over against the faces of the miter shall it be. And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead, and Aaron shall bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the sons of Israel shall sanctify, in respect to all the gifts of their holy things; and it shall be upon his forehead continually, to make them well-pleasing before Jehovah. "And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold," signifies enlightenment from the Lord‘s Divine good; "and engrave upon it with the engraving of a signet," signifies what is perpetual and impressed on hearts according to the heavenly sphere; "Holiness to Jehovah," signifies the Divine Human of the Lord, and from this all celestial and spiritual good; "and thou shalt put it upon a thread of blue," signifies influx into the truth of celestial love; "and it shall be upon the miter," signifies from infinite wisdom; "over against the faces of the miter it shall be," signifies to eternity; "and it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead," signifies from the Lord‘s Divine love; "and Aaron shall bear the iniquity of the holy things," signifies the consequent removal of falsities and evils with those who are in good; "which the sons of Israel shall sanctify, in respect to all the gifts of their holy things," signifies acts of worship representative of removal from sins; "and it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead continually," signifies a representative of the Lord‘s love to eternity; "to make them well-pleasing before Jehovah," signifies the Divine of the Lord in them.
AC 9930. And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold. That this signifies enlightenment from the Lord’s Divine good, is evident from the signification of "a plate," as being enlightenment; and from the signification of "gold," as being the good of love, here the Lord‘s Divine good, because there was inscribed upon it, "Holiness to Jehovah." That "gold" denotes the good of love, (n. 113, 1551, 1552, 5658, 6914, 6917, 8932, 9490, 9510, 9874, 9881). That "the plate" denotes enlightenment, was from its brightness, for it was resplendent from gold upon Aaron’s forehead, and all brightness signifies enlightenment such as is in the heavens from the Lord as the Sun. Enlightenment in the heavens is wisdom and intelligence from the Divine truth proceeding from the Lord from that Sun, for this enlightens their interiors. Their interiors correspond to the understanding with man, which is enlightened by the Lord when the truth and good of the church and heaven are perceived; for the understanding is the recipient subject; because without a subject there is no reception. That this "plate" denotes enlightenment from the Lord‘s Divine good, is because upon it was inscribed "Holiness to Jehovah," and it was placed upon the front of the miter, which was upon Aaron’s head. The "holiness" which is from Jehovah denotes the Divine truth that proceeds from the Lord‘s Divine good (n. 6788, 8302, 8330, 9229, 9680, 9820). In order that this plate might represent the shining forth, that is, the enlightenment, from which come wisdom and intelligence, it was bound on the forefront of the miter.
 As by "the plate" was signified enlightenment from the Lord’s Divine good, it was also called "the plate of the crown of holiness," and likewise "the crown of holiness;" for a crown is a representative of Divine good, and "holiness" denotes the Divine truth thence proceeding, as was said above. That it was called "the plate of the crown of holiness," is plain in what follows in this book of Exodus:--
Lastly they made the plate of the crown of holiness of pure gold, and wrote upon it with the writing of the engravings of a signet, Holiness to Jehovah (Exod. 39:30).
That it was also called "the crown of holiness," is evident from another passage in Exodus:--
Thou shalt set the miter upon his head, and put the crown of holiness upon the miter (Exod. 29:6).
He set the miter upon his head; and upon the miter, opposite the faces of it, did he set the plate of gold, the crown of holiness (Lev. 8:9).
 That a crown represented Divine good from which is Divine truth, is evident from the crowns of kings; for kings represented the Lord in respect to Divine truth (n. 2015, 2069, 3009, 4581, 4966, 5044, 5068, 6148); wherefore they had a crown on the head, and a scepter in the hand; for government from Divine good was represented by a crown, and government from Divine truth by a scepter.
 That a "crown" has this signification is evident from the following passages. In David:--
I will make a horn to bud unto David; I will set in order a lamp for Mine anointed. His enemies will I clothe with shame; but upon Himself shall His crown flourish (Ps. 132:17, 18);
"David" here denotes the Lord (n. 1888), like the "anointed" (n. 3008, 3009); his "horn" denotes power (n. 2832, 9081); "a lamp" denotes the Divine truth from which is intelligence (n. 9548, 9783); the "crown" denotes the Divine good from which is wisdom, and from which is also His government; the crown, which denotes wisdom, is said "to flourish" because in respect to the Human He acquired wisdom in the world by means of combats against and victories over the hells (n. 9548, 9783), which are the "enemies that shall be clothed with shame."
Thou art angry with Thine anointed, Thou hast condemned His crown even to the earth (Ps. 89:38, 39);
where also "the anointed" denotes the Lord; "anger" denotes a state of temptations which existed when He was in combats with the hells; the lamentation at that time is described by "anger" and "condemnation;" as for instance the last lamentations of the Lord on the cross, that He was "forsaken;" for the cross was the last of the temptations, that is, of the combats with the hells; and after this last temptation He put on Divine good, and in this way united His Divine Human to the Divine Itself that was in Him.
 In Isaiah:--
In that day shall Jehovah Zebaoth be for a crown of adornment, and for a diadem of comeliness, to the remains of His people (Isa. 28:5);
where "a crown of adornment" denotes the wisdom which is of good from the Divine; "a diadem of comeliness," the intelligence of truth from this good; this is predicated of Divine things with the people; the "people" here denote the church, because it was there.
 In the same:--
For Zion‘s sake I will not be silent, and for Jerusalem’s sake I will not rest, until her righteousness go forth as brightness, and her salvation burn as a lamp; and thou shalt be a crown of comeliness in the hand of Jehovah, and a miter of the kingdom in the hand of thy God (Isa. 62:1, 3);
by "Zion" and "Jerusalem" is meant the church, by "Zion" the celestial church, and by "Jerusalem" the spiritual church thence derived; "a crown of comeliness" denotes the wisdom which is of good, and "a miter of the kingdom," the intelligence which is of truth; and as by "a crown" is signified the wisdom which is of good, therefore it is said to be "in the hand of Jehovah;" and as by "a miter" is signified the intelligence which is of truth, therefore it is said to be "in the hand of God;" for where good is treated of, the name "Jehovah" is used, and where truth is treated of, the name " God" (n. 2586, 2769, 6905).
 In Jeremiah:--
Say thou to the king and to the mistress, Renounce yourselves, sit down; for the adornment of your head is come down, even the crown of your comeliness (Jer. 13:18);
where "the crown of comeliness" denotes the wisdom which is of good from Divine truth, for "comeliness" denotes the Divine truth of the church (n. 9815). In the same:--
The joy of our heart hath ceased; our dance is turned into mourning; the crown of our head is fallen (Lam. 5:15, 16);
"the crown of the head" denotes the wisdom which those who are of the church have from Divine truth, by virtue of which they are more excellent than the rest of the peoples, and hence have a kind of government.
 In Ezekiel:--
He put a jewel upon thy nose, and earrings in thine ears, and a crown of adornment upon thine head (Ezek. 16:12);
the subject here treated of is the setting up of the church; "a jewel upon the nose" denotes the perception of good; "earrings in the ears" denote the perception of truth, and obedience; "a crown upon the head" denotes the wisdom thence derived. In Job:--
He hath stripped me of my glory, and taken away the crown of my head (Job 19:9);
where "glory" denotes the intelligence which is of Divine truth (n. 9429); "the crown of the head" denotes the wisdom thence derived.
 In the Apocalypse:--
Upon the thrones I saw four and twenty elders, clothed in white garments; who had upon their heads golden crowns. They fell down before Him that was sitting upon the throne, and worshiped Him that liveth forever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne (Rev. 4:4, 10);
the "four and twenty elders" signify all those who are in good from truths, and in the abstract sense all goods from truths (n. 6524, 9404); the "thrones" denote truths from the Divine (n. 5313, 6397, 8625, 9039); the "golden crowns on their heads" are representatives of wisdom from the Divine, and because this is from the Divine, therefore they cast them before Him that was sitting upon the throne.
 As the good of wisdom is acquired by means of temptation combats, which are carried on by means of the truths of faith, therefore crowns were assigned to those who fought against evils and falsities and overcame; and for this reason also the crowns of martyrdom were badges of command from the Lord over evils. That "crowns" denote the rewards of victory over evils, and that for this reason they denote the goods of wisdom, because these are the rewards, is also evident from the Apocalypse:--
I saw, and behold a white horse; and he that sat upon it had a bow; and there was given unto him a crown; and he went forth conquering, and to conquer (Rev 6:2);
the "white horse and he that sat upon it" signify the Lord as to the Word (n. 2760-2762); "a bow" denotes the doctrine of truth, by means of which the combat is waged (n. 2686, 2709); from this it is evident that the "crown," because said of the Lord, denotes the Divine good, which is the reward of victory.
 And in another passage:--
Afterward I saw, and behold a white cloud; and upon the cloud one sitting like unto the Son of man, having upon his head a golden crown, and in his hand a sharp sickle (Rev. 14:14);
"a white cloud" denotes the literal sense of the Word (n. 4060, 4391, 5922, 6343, 6752, 8781); "the Son of man" denotes the Divine truth which is from the Lord (n. 9807); "a golden crown," the Divine good from which is the Divine truth; "a sharp sickle" denotes the dispersing of evil and falsity. And again:--
Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee the crown of life (Rev. 2:10).
Behold I come quickly; hold fast that which thou hast, that no one take thy crown (Rev. 3:11);
the "crown" denotes good from truths, thus wisdom; for this belongs to the good of love from the truths of faith. From all this it can now be seen what is signified by a "crown," and what by "the crown of holiness," which was the plate of gold on which was engraved "Holiness to Jehovah"
AC 9931. And grave upon it with the engraving of a signet. That this signifies what is perpetual and impressed on hearts according to the heavenly sphere, is evident from the signification of "to engrave," as being to impress on the memory (n. 9841, 9842), thus also on the heart; for that which is impressed on the interior memory, which belongs to the life, is said to be "impressed on the heart," and as this remains to eternity, it also signifies what is perpetual; and from the signification of "the engraving of a signet," as being the heavenly sphere (n. 9846). The reason why it is said to be "impressed on hearts according to the heavenly sphere," is that the things which have been impressed on the memory, especially on the interior memory, which is the book of life (n. 2474), have been impressed according to the heavenly sphere; for a man who is in the good of love from the truths of faith resembles heaven, and moreover is a heaven in the least form (n. 9279, 9632); thus in him there is the heavenly form; for all the societies in heaven have been set in order in accordance with the heavenly form, because all the affections of good and the consequent thoughts of truth flow in accordance with this form (n. 9877). That when a man is in heavenly love all the memory-knowledges are arranged in the heavenly form, and that love so arranges them, (n. 6690).
AC 9932. Holiness to Jehovah. That this signifies the Divine Human of the Lord, and from this all celestial and spiritual good, is evident from the signification of "holiness," as being the Divine that proceeds from the Lord, thus as being the Lord Himself in respect to the Divine Human, from which is everything Divine in the heavens. It is from this that celestial good, which is the good of love to the Lord from the Lord; and spiritual good, which is the good of love toward the neighbor from the Lord, are holy. For the Lord alone is holy, and that which proceeds from Him is the only holiness in the heavens and on earth (n. 9229, 9680, 9820). That the holiness proceeding from the Lord is called "the Holy Spirit," (n. 9818); and that angels, prophets, and apostles, are called "holy" from their reception of Divine truth from the Lord, (n. 9820); and also that "the sanctuary" denotes heaven from the Divine there, (n. 8330, 9479). It is said, "Holiness to Jehovah," because "Jehovah" in the Word denotes the Lord (n. 9373). The reason why "Holiness to Jehovah" was engraved on the plate of gold, and placed upon the miter upon Aaron‘s forehead, was that in this way it was in the view of all the people, consequently there was holiness in their minds while they were in worship, and this holiness corresponded to the holiness that is in the universal heaven, which is the Divine Human of the Lord; for as before said this makes heaven. That which is in the general view of all the people, and which thereby reigns universally in their minds, enters into everything of thought and of affection, and consequently into everything of worship, and affects it (n. 6159, 6571, 7648, 8067, 8865); and therefore when this very great holiness was constantly before their eyes, and from this reigned universally in their minds, it made holy all things of worship.
AC 9933. And thou shalt put it upon a thread of blue. That this signifies influx into the truth of celestial love, is evident from the signification of "blue," as being the truth of celestial love. Influx into this truth is signified by the plate on which was engraved "Holiness to Jehovah" being put upon a thread of blue, for in this way it hung from it and was bound to it, and in the spiritual sense by "being bound to," and "hanging," is signified to inflow, because all conjunction whatever is effected by means of influx. That the influx is into the truth of celestial love about the Lord’s Divine Human, which is signified by "Holiness to Jehovah," is because in that sphere of heaven where is the truth of celestial love, no other Divine is perceived than the Divine Human of the Lord.
 For the case herein is as follows. There are three heavens, which have been distinguished from one another by means of the degrees of good. In the inmost heaven is the good of celestial love, which is the good of love to the Lord; in the second or middle heaven is the good of spiritual love, which is the good of charity toward the neighbor; in the first or ultimate heaven is the good of natural love, from spiritual and from celestial love, which is the good of faith and obedience. In each heaven there is an internal and an external. As just said, the internal in the inmost heaven is the good of love to the Lord, and the external there is the good of mutual love, which belongs to the love of good for the sake of good. This good is what is meant by the truth of celestial love, which is signified by "the thread of blue." In the sphere where is this truth, the Lord‘s Human is perceived as being the Divine Itself in the heavens, and therefore as soon as an angel is raised into this sphere, he comes into this light also. This perception flows in from the Lord, because the Divine Human of the Lord makes heaven. This is the influx which is here signified. That "blue" denotes the celestial love of truth, or what is the same thing, the truth of celestial love, (n. 9466, 9687, 9833).
AC 9934. And it shall be upon the miter. That this signifies from infinite wisdom, is evident from the signification of "the miter," as being intelligence (n. 9827); and when said with reference to the Lord, who was represented by Aaron, the "miter" denotes Divine or infinite wisdom.
AC 9935. Over against the faces of the miter shall it be. That hereby is signified to eternity, is evident from the signification of "over against the faces of the miter," when said of the Lord, who is represented by Aaron, as being to eternity (n. 9888).
AC 9936. And it shall be upon Aaron’s forehead. That this signifies from the Lord‘s Divine love, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord as to Divine good, which is the good of His Divine love (n. 9806); and from the signification of "the forehead," when it refers to the Lord, as being His Divine love; for by "the face of the Lord," or what is the same, by "the face of Jehovah," are signified all things of the Divine love; such as mercy, peace, good, wisdom (n. 222, 223, 5585, 6848, 6849, 9306, 9545, 9546). That "the face of Jehovah" or "the face of the Lord" has this signification, is because by "the face" in general are signified the interior things of man, which are his affections and the consequent thoughts, thus the things that belong to his love and faith (n. 9546). The reason why these things are signified by "the face," is that they shine forth from the face as it were in their type or effigy; wherefore also the face is called the effigy of the mind. Hence it is that by "the face," when said of Jehovah or the Lord, are signified the things which are of His Divine love. That by "the forehead" is specifically signified the Divine love itself, is because the interiors have been allotted their provinces in the face; those which are of love being in the province of the forehead; those which are of wisdom and intelligence being in the province of the eyes; those which are of perception being in the province of the nostrils; and those which are of utterance being in the province of the mouth. From this it is evident why "the forehead," when said of the Lord, who is represented by Aaron, signifies the Divine love.
 As the forehead with man corresponds to his love, therefore they who are in celestial love (that is, in love to the Lord from the Lord) are said to have "a mark on their foreheads," by which is signified that they are under the Lord’s protection, because they are in His love, as in the following passages:--
Jehovah said, Go through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that groan and sigh for all the abominations that are done in the midst thereof; and smite; let not your eye spare; but come not near against any man upon whom is the mark (Ezek. 9:4-6).
Behold the Lamb standing on the Mount Zion, and with Him a hundred and forty and four thousand, having the name of His Father written on their foreheads (Rev. 14:1).
They shall see the faces of God and of the Lamb, and His name shall be on their foreheads (Rev. 22:4).
It was said that they should not hurt the grass of the earth, neither any green thing, nor any tree; but only the men that have not the mark of God on their foreheads (Rev. 9:4).
 "Having the mark," or seal, "of God," and "the name of God," "on their foreheads," denotes to be in safety from the infestation of evils which are from hell, because they are in the Lord through love; "the grass and the green thing," which were not to be hurt, denote the memory-truth through which is the truth of faith (n. 7571, 7691); "the tree," which also was not to be hurt, denotes the perception of truth from good (n. 103, 2163, 2722, 2972, 4552, 7692).
 In Moses:--
Thou shalt love Jehovah thy God from all thine heart, and from all thy soul, and from all thy strengths. Thou shalt bind these words for a sign upon thy hand, and they shall be for frontlets between thine eyes (Deut. 6:5, 8);
"to be for frontlets" denotes for a sign of love to Jehovah God.; it is said "between the eyes," because "the eyes" signify the intelligence and wisdom which are from this love, and wisdom from this love is to have God continually before the eyes. That this is the meaning is evident, because love to Jehovah God is treated of. It is said that they should "love Him from all the heart, from all the soul, and from all the strengths," by which is signified with all that is in man. "From the heart" denotes from the will in which is the good of love (n. 7542, 9050, 9300, 9495); "from the soul" denotes from the understanding in which is the truth of faith, thus from faith (n. 9050), which two are of the internal man; "from all the strengths" denotes from the things that belong to the understanding and the will in the external man. The strengths and power of the love of both the external and the internal man are signified by "the hands" (n. 4931-4937, 7518); and therefore it is said that "these words shall be bound for a sign upon the hand."
 As by virtue of its correspondence "the forehead" signifies heavenly love with the good; so with the evil it signifies infernal love, which is opposite to heavenly love. The forehead of the latter is called a "brazen forehead" in (Isaiah 48:4); and a "hardened forehead" in (Ezekiel 3:7, 8); and of those who are in infernal love it is said that "they had the mark of the beast upon their foreheads" (Rev. 13:16; 14:9; 20:4); and also "the name of Babylon upon their foreheads" (Rev. 17:5).
AC 9937. And Aaron shall bear the iniquity of the holy things. That this signifies the consequent removal of falsities and evils with those who are in good from the Lord, is evident from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord in respect to the good of love (n. 9806); and from the representation of the priesthood which Aaron administered, as being the whole once which the Lord discharges as the Saviour (n. 9809); from the signification of "bearing iniquity," as being the removal of falsities and evils with those who are in good; and from the signification of "the holy things," as being the gifts which they brought to Jehovah or the Lord in order that their sins might be expiated, which gifts were burnt-offerings, sacrifices, and meat-offerings. That these things are meant by "the holy things," is clear, for it is said, "which the sons of Israel shall sanctify in respect to all the gifts of their holy things." That "bearing iniquity" denotes to remove falsities and evils, or sins, with those who are in good, is because it is said of the Lord, for the Lord was represented by Aaron, and the whole work of salvation was represented by the office, or priesthood, of Aaron. That it is said of the Lord that He "bore sins" for the human race, has been known in the church; but still it is not known what is meant by "bearing iniquities and sins." It is believed by some that it denotes that He took on Himself the sins of the human race, and suffered Himself to be condemned even to the death of the cross; and that because the condemnation for sins was cast on Him, mortals were thus freed from damnation; and also that the damnation was taken away by the Lord through the fulfilling of the law, because the law would have condemned everyone who did not fulfil it.
 But these things are not meant by "bearing iniquity," because every man‘s deeds remain with him after death, and according to the quality of these he is then judged either to life or to death. Their quality is from his love and his faith, for love and faith make the life of a deed; and therefore they cannot be taken away by transfer to another who would bear them. From this it is evident that something else is meant by "bearing iniquities;" but what is meant can be seen from the bearing itself of iniquities or sins by the Lord. For the Lord bears them when He fights for man against the hells, because man cannot fight against these from himself; but the Lord alone does this, and indeed continually for every man, but with a difference according to his reception of the Divine good and Divine truth.
 When the Lord was in the world, He fought against all the hells, and completely subjugated them. From this He also became righteousness. Thus He redeemed from damnation those who receive the Divine good and truth from Him. Unless this had been done by the Lord, no man could have been saved; for in so far as the Lord does not remove them, the hells are constantly with man, and have dominion over him; and He removes them in proportion as the man desists from evils. He who once conquers the hells, conquers them to eternity; and in order that this might be done by the Lord, He made His Human Divine. He, therefore, who alone fights for man against the hells (or what is the same thing, against evils and falsities, for these are from the hells) is said "to bear sins," for He alone supports this burden. That by "bearing sins" is also signified the removal of evils and falsities from those who are in good, is because this is the consequence; for in so far as the hells are removed from man, so far evils and falsities are removed, because as before said both of these are from the hells. Evils and falsities are "sins" and "iniquities." How the case herein is can be seen from what was shown above (n. 9715, 9809), where the Lord’s merit and righteousness, and also the subjugation of the hells by Him are treated of.
 The reason why it is said of Aaron that he should "bear iniquities," was that he represented the Lord, and his priesthood represented the Lord‘s whole work of salvation (n. 9806, 9809); and the main work of salvation is to redeem and deliver man from the hells, and thus to remove evils and falsities. It is said to remove evils and falsities, because deliverance from sins (that is, the forgiveness of them) is nothing else than their removal; for they remain with the man; but in so far as the good of love and the truth of faith are implanted, so far the evil and falsity are removed. The case herein is like that with heaven and hell. Heaven does not abolish hell; but removes from itself those who are there. For it is the good and truth from the Lord which make heaven; and these are what effect this removal. The case is similar with man, who of himself is a hell; but when he is being regenerated, he becomes a heaven, and in so far as he becomes a heaven, so far hell is removed. It is a common opinion that evils, that is, sins, are not removed in this way; but are absolutely separated. But such persons are not aware that from himself the whole man is nothing but evil, and that in so far as he is kept in good by the Lord, the evils which belong to him appear as if they were rooted out; for when a man is kept in good, he is withheld from evil. Nevertheless no one can be withheld from evil and kept in good unless he is in the good of faith and of charity from the Lord; that is, only in so far as he suffers himself to be regenerated by the Lord. For as before said, heaven is implanted in man by regeneration, and thereby the hell which is with him is removed.
 From all this it can be seen again that "bearing iniquities," when said of the Lord, denotes to continually fight for man against the hells, thus continually to remove them; for there is a perpetual removing, not only while man is in the world, but also in the other life to eternity. It is impossible for any man to remove evils in this way; for from himself man cannot remove the least of evil, still less the hells, and least of all to eternity. But see what has been shown on this subject before, namely, that the evils with man are not absolutely separated; but are removed in so far as he is in this good from the Lord, (n. 8393, 9014, 9333-9336, 9444-9454). That while He was in the world the Lord conquered the hells by means of the combats of temptations, and thereby disposed all things into order; and also that He did this from Divine love, in order to save the human race; and that thus He also made His Human Divine, may be seen in the places cited in (n. 9528); and also that in temptations, which are spiritual combats against the evils which are from hell, the Lord fights for man, (n. 1692, 6574, 8159, 8172, 8175, 8176, 8273, 8969). How the Lord while in the world bore the iniquities of the human race, that is, fought with the hells and subjugated them, and thus acquired for Himself the Divine power of removing these things with all who are in good, and thus became merit and righteousness, is described in (Isaiah 59:16-20; 63:1-9), as has been already explained (n. 9715, 9809).
 When these things are understood, it can be known what is signified by all that is said in the fifty-third chapter of the same prophet concerning the Lord, in which from beginning to end the state of His temptations is treated of; thus the state in which He was while He fought with the hells, for temptations are nothing else than combats with these. This state is thus described:--He bore our sicknesses, and carried our griefs; He was pierced for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities; Jehovah made to fall on Him the iniquity of us all; and thus He gave the wicked to their sepulchre; the will of Jehovah shall prosper by His hand; He shall see from the labor of His soul and be sated; and by His wisdom shall justify many, because He hath borne their iniquities, and thus hath carried the sin of many. He is also called there "the Arm of Jehovah," by which is signified Divine power (n. 4932, 7205). That by "bearing sicknesses," "sorrows," and "iniquities," and by "being pierced and bruised by them," is signified a state of temptations, is evident; for in such a state there are griefs of soul, distresses, and despairs, which in this way cause anguish. Such things are induced by the hells, for in temptations they assault the very love of him against whom they fight; the love of everyone being the inmost of his life. The Lord’s love was the love of saving the human race, which love was the Esse of His life, for this love was the Divine in Him. In Isaiah also, where the subject treated of is the combats of the Lord, this is described in these words:--
He said, Surely they are My people, therefore He became their Saviour. In all their distress He was distressed; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; and He took them up, and carried them all the days of eternity (Isa. 63:8, 9).
 That while He was in the world the Lord endured such temptations, is only briefly described in the Gospels, but at great length in the prophets, and especially in the Psalms of David. In the Gospels it is only said that He was led into the wilderness, and was afterward tempted by the devil, and that He was there forty days, and was with the beasts (Mark 1:12, 13; Matt. 4:1). But that from His earliest childhood even to the end of His life in the world He was in temptations, that is, in combats with the hells, He did not reveal, in accordance with these words in Isaiah:--
He was oppressed, and was afflicted, yet He opened not His mouth; He is led as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, He opened not His mouth (Isa. 53:7).
His last temptation was in Gethsemane (Matt. xxvi; Mark xiv),
and then came the passion of the cross; that He thereby fully subjugated the hells, He Himself teaches in John:--
Father, rescue Me from this hour. But for this sake came I into this hour. Father, glorify Thy name. Then came there a voice out of heaven, saying, I have glorified it and will glorify it. Then said Jesus, Now is the judgment of this world; now shall the prince of this world be cast out (John 12:27, 28, 31);
"the prince of the world" is the devil, thus all hell; "to glorify" denotes to make the human Divine. The reason why mention is made only of the temptation after forty days in the wilderness, is that "forty days" signify and involve temptations to the full, thus the temptations of many years (n. 8098, 9437); "the wilderness" signifies hell, and "the beasts with which He fought there" signify the diabolical crew.
 The removal of sins with those who are in good, that is, those who have practised repentance, was represented in the Jewish Church by the he-goat called "Asasel," upon the head of which Aaron was to lay his hands, and to confess the iniquities of the sons of Israel, and all their transgressions in respect to all their sins, and was then to send it into the wilderness, and that in this way the he-goat should bear upon him all their iniquities into a land of separation (Lev. 16:21, 22). By Aaron is here represented the Lord; by "the he-goat" is signified faith; by "the wilderness," and "the land of separation," hell; and by "bearing thither the iniquities of the sons of Israel" is signified to remove them, and cast them into hell. No one can know that such things were represented, except from the internal sense; for everyone can see that the iniquities of a whole congregation could not be borne into the wilderness by any he-goat; for what had the he-goat in common with iniquities? But as at that time all representatives signified such things as belong to the Lord, to heaven and to the church, so also did these. The internal sense therefore teaches what these things involve, namely, that it is the truth of faith by means of which man is regenerated, consequently by means of which sins are removed; and because the faith of truth is from the Lord, it is the Lord Himself who effects this; (n. 2760, 3332, 3876, 3877, 4738). That Aaron represents the Lord, (n. 9806, 9810); also that a "he-goat of the goats" denotes the truth of faith, (n. 4169, 4769). That "the wilderness" denotes hell, is because the camp in which were the sons of Israel signified heaven (n. 4236); and therefore the wilderness is called a "land of separation," or of "cutting off." Thus by "bearing iniquities into that land," that is into the wilderness, is signified to cast evils and falsities into hell, from which they are; and they are cast thither when they are removed so as not to appear, which is effected when a man is withheld from them by being kept in good by the Lord, according to what was said above.
 The like that was signified by the casting out of sins into the wilderness is signified by "casting them forth into the depths of the sea," as in Micah:--
He will have compassion upon us; He will suppress our iniquities; and He will cast all their sins into the depths of the sea (Micah 7:19);
"the depth of the sea" also denotes hell.
 From all this it is now evident that by "Aaron bearing the iniquities of the holy things," is signified the removal of sins by the Lord from those who are in good; and that their removal is continually being effected by the Lord; and that this is meant by "bearing iniquities." So also in another passage in Moses:--
Jehovah said unto Aaron, Thou and thy sons with thee shall hear the iniquity of the sanctuary; and thou and thy sons with thee shall bear the iniquity of your priesthood. The sons of Israel shall no more come nigh the Tent of meeting, to bear sin, by dying. But the Levite shall do the work of the Tent, and they shall bear their iniquity (Num. 18:1, 22, 23).
The like is meant by "bearing," in Isaiah:--
Attend unto Me O house of Israel that have been carried from the womb. Even to old age I am the same, and even to boar hairs will I carry; I have made, and I will carry; yea, I will bear, and will rescue (Isa. 46:3, 4).
 That"bearing iniquity" denotes to expiate, thus to re move sins, is evident in Moses:--
Moses was indignant with Eleazar and with Ithamar because the he-goat of the sacrifice of sin had been burnt, saying, therefore did ye not eat it in the place of holiness, seeing that Jehovah hath given it you to bear the iniquities of the congregation, to expiate them before Jehovah (Lev. 10:16, 17).
That "expiation" means a cleansing from evils, thus removal from sins, (n. 9506); and that Aaron was enjoined to expiate the people, and to pardon their sins, (Leviticus 4:26, 31, 35; 5:6, 10, 13, 16, 18; 9:7; 15:15, 30). That "to bear sins," when not said of the priesthood, denotes to be damned, thus to die, (Leviticus 5:1, 17; 7:18; 17:16; 19:8; 20:17, 19, 20; 22:9; 24:15; Numbers 9:13; 18:22; Ezekiel 18:19, 20; 23:49).
AC 9938. Which the sons of Israel shall sanctify in respect to all the gifts of their holy things. That this signifies acts of worship representative of removal from sins, is evident from the signification of "gifts" or "offerings," which among the Israelitish and Jewish nation were chiefly burnt-offerings, sacrifices, and meat-offerings, as being the interior things of worship, for these were what they represented. The interior things of worship are those which are of love and faith, and from this forgivenesses of sins, that is, removals from them, because sins are removed through faith and love from the Lord. For in so far as the good of love and of faith enters, or what is the same thing, so far as heaven enters, so far sins are removed, that is, so far hell is removed, both that which is within man, and that which is without him. From this it is evident what is meant by "the gifts which they sanctified," that is, offered. The gifts were called "holy," and presenting or offering them was called "sanctifying" them, because they represented holy things; for they were offered for expiations, thus for removals from sins, which are effected through faith and love to the Lord from the Lord.
 They were called "gifts and offerings made to Jehovah," although Jehovah, that is, the Lord, does not accept any gifts or offerings, but gives to everyone freely. Nevertheless He wills that these things should come from man as from himself, provided he acknowledges that they are not from himself, but from the Lord. For the Lord imparts the affection of doing good from love, and the affection of speaking truth from faith; but the affection itself flows in from the Lord, and it appears as if it were in the man, thus from the man; for whatever a man does from the affection which is of love, he does from his life, because love is the life of everyone. From this it is evident that what are called "gifts and offerings made to the Lord" by man are in their essence gifts and offerings made to man by the Lord; and their being called "gifts and offerings" is from the appearance. All who are wise in heart see this appearance; but not so the simple; and yet the gifts and offerings of the latter are grateful, in so far as they are offered from ignorance in which is innocence. Innocence is the good of love to God, and dwells in ignorance, especially with the wise in heart; for they who are wise in heart know and perceive that there is nothing of wisdom in themselves from themselves; but that everything of wisdom is from the Lord, that is, everything of the good of love, and everything of the truth of faith; thus that even with the wise innocence dwells in ignorance. From this it is evident that the acknowledgment of this fact, and especially the perception of it, is the innocence of wisdom.
 The gifts that were offered in the Jewish Church, and which were chiefly burnt-offerings, sacrifices, and meat-offerings, were also called "expiations from sins," because they were offered for the sake of the forgivenesses of them, that is, removals from them. Those who belonged to that church also believed that their sins were accordingly forgiven; nay, that they were entirely taken away; for it is said that after they had offered these things they would be "forgiven" (Lev. 4:26, 31, 35; 5:6, 10, 13, 16, 18; 9:7; 9:15, 18). But they did not know that these offerings represented interior things, thus such things as are done by man from the love and faith that are from the Lord; and that these are the things which expiate, that is, remove sins, and that after they have been removed they appear as if they were quite removed or taken away, as has been shown above in this and in the preceding articles. For that nation was in representative worship, thus in external worship without internal, by means of which there was at that time a conjunction of heaven with man. (n. 9320, 9380).
AC 9939. And it shall be upon Aaron‘s forehead continually. That this signifies a representative of the Lord’s love to eternity, is evident from the signification of "the forehead," as being love (n. 9936); from the representation of Aaron, as being the Lord (n. 9806); and from the signification of "continually," as being to eternity. That "continually" denotes to eternity, is because all things that belong to time, when said of the Lord, signify eternal things; therefore also "continually." For "continually," "daily," and "always," are predicated of time. From this also it is that "yesterday," and "today," when said of the Lord, likewise signify that which is eternal (n. 2838).
AC 9940. To make them well-pleasing before Jehovah. That this signifies what is Divine of the Lord in them, is evident from the signification of "well-pleasing," when said of Jehovah, that is, the Lord, as being from His Divine, for that which is well-pleasing to the Lord is that which is from Him with man, spirit, or angel; for it is then in another, in whom it is looked at, and thus is well-pleasing. The things which are from the Lord are either nearer to, or more remote from Him; and they are said to be "from His will," "from good pleasure," " from leave," and "from permission." The things which are from will are most nearly from Him; those which are from good pleasure are somewhat more remotely from Him; those which are from leave still more remotely; and those which are from permission are most remotely from Him. These are the degrees of the influx and reception of the Divine. But each degree contains innumerable things which are distinct from those which are in any other degree; and these innumerable things are arcana of heaven, a few only of which fall into the human understanding. For instance, to take only those things which take place from permission, which, although they are in the last place, nevertheless on account of the numberless arcana therein cause a man to fall into confusion when he looks at them from the happenings of things in nature, and from appearances, and still more when from the fallacies of the senses. Yet the arcana of permission are comparatively few as compared with those of the higher degrees, which are the things that take place from leave, from good pleasure, and from will. EXODUS 28:36-38 previous - next - text - summary - Exodus - Full Page
|Author: E. Swedenborg (1688-1772).||Design: I.J. Thompson, Feb 2002.||www.BibleMeanings.info|