Spiritual Meaning of EXODUS 23:10-13
AC 9271. Verses 10-13. And six years thou shalt sow thy land, and shalt gather the produce thereof; and in the seventh thou shalt let it lie fallow, and shalt release it; and the needy of thy people shall eat; and what they leave the wild animal of the field shall eat. So shalt thou do to thy vineyard, and to thine oliveyard. Six days thou shalt do thy works, and on the seventh day thou shalt cease; that thine ox and thine ass may rest; and the son of thy handmaid, and the sojourner, may take breath. And all that I have said unto you ye shall keep; and ye shall not mention the name of other gods; it shall not be heard upon thy mouth. "And six years thou shalt sow thy land," signifies the first state, when the man of the church is being instructed in the truths and goods of faith; "and shalt gather the produce thereof," signifies the goods of truth therefrom; "and in the seventh year thou shalt let it lie fallow, and shalt release it," signifies the second state, when the man of the church is in good, and thus in the tranquillity of peace; "and the needy of thy people shall eat," signifies conjunction through the good of charity with those who are in few truths and yet long to be instructed; "and what they leave the wild animal of the field shall eat," signifies conjunction through these with those who are in the delights of external truth; "so shalt thou do to thy vineyard, and to thine oliveyard," signifies that so it is with spiritual good and with celestial good; "six days thou shalt do thy works," signifies the state of labor and of combat when the man is in external things, which are to be conjoined with internal; "and on the seventh day thou shalt cease," signifies the state of good when the man is in internal things, and his tranquillity of peace then; "that thine ox and thine ass may rest," signifies tranquillity at the same time for external goods and truths; "and the son of thy handmaid, and the sojourner, may take breath," signifies the state of life of those outside the church who are in truths and goods; "and all that I have said unto you ye shall keep," signifies that the commandments, the judgments, and the statutes are to be done; "and ye shall not mention the name of other gods," signifies that they must not think from the doctrine of falsity; "it shall not be heard upon thy mouth," signifies that obedience is not to be paid with any affirmation.
AC 9272. Six years thou shalt sow thy land. That this signifies the first state, when the man of the church is being instructed in the truths and goods of faith, is evident from the signification of "six years," as being the first state of the man who is being regenerated (n. 9274); and from the signification of "sowing the land," as being when the truths and goods of faith are being implanted. That this is signified by "sowing the land" is because all things of the field, of seeding, and of its produce, signify such things as are of the church in general, and as are of the man of the church in particular, who is a man that has been regenerated through the truth of faith and the good of charity from the Lord. Hence it is that "field" and "ground" in the Word signify those in the church who receive the truths and goods of faith, as a field receives seeds. Wherefore also in the Word mention is often made of a "field," of "seed," of "sowing," of "harvest," of "produce," of "grain" and "wheat," and of "bread" from these, as well as of all other things that belong to a field.
 He who does not know how the case is with the state of heaven, believes no otherwise than that these expressions in the Word are mere metaphors and comparisons. But they are real correspondences. For when the angels discourse about the regeneration of man by the Lord through the truths of faith and the goods of charity, then below in the world of spirits there appear fields, crops, fallow lands, and also harvests; and this by reason of their correspondence. He who knows this can also know that such things in the world have been created according to correspondences; for universal nature (that is, the sky with the sun, moon, and stars, and the earth with the objects of its three kingdoms) corresponds to such things as are in the spiritual world (n. 2993, 5116, 5377). That in this way nature is a theater representative of the Lord’s kingdom, (n. 3483); and that from this all things in the natural world have their subsistence, (n. 2987, 2989-2991, 3002, 8211). From all this it is evident why the things belonging to a field, that is, which are sown in a field, and are reaped from a field, signify such things as are of the church in general and in particular. That even the comparisons used in the Word are from things which correspond, (n. 3579, 8989).
 That "sowing the land," that is, a "field," denotes to teach and learn the truths and goods of faith which are of the church; and that the "produce" denotes the goods of truth therefrom, may be seen from many passages in the Word; as in Isaiah:--
Because thou hast forgotten the God of thy salvation, therefore shall thou plant plants of delights; but with the shoot of a strange one thou shalt set it: in the day thou shalt cause thy plant to grow, and in the morning thy seed to blossom: the harvest shall be a heap in the day of possession; but the grief is desperate (Isa. 17:10, 11);
here such things are mentioned as grow on the earth; yet it is evident that holy things of the church are meant by them; namely, by "planting plants of delights," such things as are favorable to the affections; and by "setting the land with a shoot of a strange one," to teach truths not genuine.
 In Jeremiah:--
Thus said Jehovah to the man of Judah and to Jerusalem, Break up your fallow ground, and sow not among thorns. Circumcise yourselves to Jehovah, and take away the foreskins of your heart (Jer. 4:3, 4).
That "to sow among thorns" denotes to teach and learn truths, but which are choked and rendered unfruitful by the cares of the world, the deceitfulness of riches, and concupiscence, the Lord teaches in (Mark 4:7, 18, 19). Wherefore it is said, that they should "circumcise themselves to Jehovah, and take away the foreskins of their heart," that is, that they should purify themselves from such things as choke the truths and goods of faith, and render them unfruitful. That this is the meaning of "circumcising" (n. 2039, 2056, 2632, 3412, 3413, 4462, 7045). The like is signified in Jeremiah by "sowing wheat and reaping thorns" (Jer. 12:13).
 In Micah:--
I have been wearied with smiting thee, with laying thee waste because of thy sins. Thou shalt sow, but shalt not reap; thou shalt tread the olive, but shalt not anoint thee with oil; and the must, but shalt not drink the wine (Micah 6:13, 15);
"sowing and not reaping" denotes to be instructed in the truths of faith, but without profit; "treading the olive, but not anointing one‘s self" denotes to be instructed about the good of life, but still not to live in it; "treading the must, but not drinking the wine" denotes to be instructed about the truths which are from good, but still not to appropriate them to one’s self. That such things of the church or of heaven are signified by these words is plain from those which precede, namely, that they were to be laid waste in this manner "because of their sins;" for the wicked and sinful man receives instruction, but merely stores it up among memory-knowledges, which he brings forth from his memory in order to get reputation, fame, honors, and wealth, thus to serve an evil use and end. From this the truths and the goods in which he has been instructed lose the life of heaven, and become dead, and finally deadly.
 In Isaiah:--
Blessed are ye that sow beside all waters, that send forth the foot of the ox and the ass (Isa. 32:20);
"to sow beside all waters" denotes to be instructed in all kinds of truths which are for use; "to send forth the foot of the ox and the ass" denotes to be instructed in external goods and truths. Again:--
Jacob shall cause those who are to come to take root; Israel shall blossom and bloom, so that the faces of the world shall be filled with produce; thy teachers shall not any more be forced to flee away, and thine eyes shall look unto thy teachers; and thine ears shall hear a word behind thee, saying, This is the way, go ye in it. Then shall Jehovah give the rain of thy seed, wherewith thou shalt sow the land; and bread of the produce of the earth, and it shall be fat and rich; in that day shall thy cattle feed in a broad meadow; and the oxen and the asses that till the land shall eat clean provender. The light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day that Jehovah shall bind up the breach of His people, and shall heal the wound of their stroke (Isa. 27:6; 30:20-26).
 To everyone who reflects it is plainly evident that by its being said that Jehovah should "give the rain of the seed wherewith they should sow the land, and bread of the produce of the earth;" that "their cattle should feed in a broad meadow;" that "the oxen and the asses that till the land should eat clean provender;" that "the light of the moon should be as the light of the sun, and the light of sun should be sevenfold," there are signified such things as are of the church, and also that they signify instruction in the truths and goods of faith; because it is said, "thine eyes shall look unto thy teachers, and thine ears shall hear a word, saying, This is the way, go ye in it." For "teachers" denote those who instruct, and "the way in which they should go" denotes the truth of doctrine and the good of life. But the specific signification of each expression is clear from the signification of "rain," of "seed," of "produce," of "land," of "cattle," of a "broad meadow," of "oxen and asses tilling the land," and of "clean provender which they should eat;" also from the signification of "the light of the moon and of the sun," likewise of "sevenfold," and of "seven days." And as by these expressions are signified such things as are of the church, that is, such as are of doctrine and of life, it follows that this will come to pass in the day that Jehovah shall "bind up the breach of His people, and heal the wound of their stroke;" for "the breach of the people" denotes the falsity of doctrine which gradually creeps in from the badness of the teachers, from concupiscences, and from other causes; "the wound of the stroke" denoting the consequent evil of life.
 As with the Israelitish and Jewish people all things were representative of things heavenly and Divine, so also were the fields, and their produce; likewise the vineyards, oliveyards, and all plantings; as also herds and oxen, and the mountains, hills, valleys, rivers, and all other things that were presented before their senses. From this also it was that they were enriched with such things when they kept and did the statutes and judgments, according to the promises in the Word throughout, as in these passages:--
If ye shall walk in My statutes, and keep My commandments, and do them, I will give your rains in their season, and the land shall yield her produce, and the tree of the field shall yield its fruit (Lev. 26:3, 4).
The vine shall give its fruit, and the earth shall give its produce, and the heavens shall give their dew; whence it shall come to pass, that as ye have been a curse among the nations, ye shall be a blessing (Zech. 8:12, 13).
 The contrary befell them when they worshiped other gods, for then they no longer represented heavenly and Divine things, but infernal and diabolical ones. Wherefore then there was no longer fruitfulness nor produce; but consumption and wasting, according to these words in Moses:--
If ye serve other gods, the anger of Jehovah shall be kindled against you, and He shall shut up the heaven, that there be no rain, and the land yield not her produce (Deut. 11:16, 17).
When Jeshurun waxed fat, he kicked, and forsook God. They sacrifice unto demons, to gods whom they knew not; wherefore a fire is kindled in Mine anger, and it shall burn even to the lowest hell, and shall consume the land and its produce (Deut. 32:15, 17, 22).
 From all this it is now evident what is signified by "sowing the land," and by its "produce," and also whence these have their signification. It is also evident what is signified by these things in the following passages:--
Jehovah maketh a wilderness into a pool of waters, and a land of drought into watersprings. There He maketh the hungry to dwell, that they may sow fields, and plant vineyards, and get them fruit of produce (Ps. 107:35-37).
Let all the peoples confess Thee. The earth shall yield its produce; God shall bless us (Ps. 67:5-7).
Jehovah maketh His people ride on the high places of the earth, and feedeth them with the produce of the fields; He maketh him to suck honey out of the cliff of the rock, and oil out of the stone of the rock (Deut. 32:13).
AC 9273. And shalt gather the produce thereof. That this signifies the goods of truth therefrom, is evident from the signification of "gathering," as being appropriation after instruction, for when "sowing" denotes instruction and being instructed in the truths of faith, "gathering" denotes the appropriation of them. Appropriation is effected when the truths that have been of doctrine become of the life. When they become truths of life, they are called the "goods of truth." It is these which are here signified by "produce."
AC 9274. And in the seventh year thou shalt let it lie fallow, and shalt release it. That this signifies the second state, when the man of the church is in good, and thus in the tranquillity of peace, is evident from the signification of "the seventh year," or the sabbath, as being when man is in good, and is led of the Lord by means of good (n. 8505, 8510, 8890, 8893); from the signification of "letting the land lie fallow," that is, not sowing it, as being not to be led by truths, as before; and from the signification of "releasing it," as being to be in the tranquillity of peace. That the sabbath also was a representative of the state of peace in which there is conjunction, (n. 8494). For by the lying fallow, and the release or rest of the land, was represented the rest, tranquillity, and peace possessed by those who are in good from the Lord. That there are two states with the man who is being regenerated and becoming a church; namely, the first when he is led by means of the truths of faith to the good of charity; and the second when he is in the good of charity, (n. 7923, 7992, 8505, 8506, 8512, 8513, 8516, 8539, 8643, 8648, 8658, 8685, 8690, 8701, 8772, 9139, 9224, 9227, 9230).
 That there are these two states with the man who is being regenerated and becoming a church, has been heretofore unknown, chiefly for the reason that the man of the church has not made any distinction between truth and good, thus not between faith and charity; and also because he has had no distinct perception of the two faculties of man, which are the understanding and the will; and that the understanding sees truths and goods, and the will is affected with them and loves them. For the same reason he could not know that the first state of the man who is being regenerated is learning truths and seeing them, and that the second state is willing and loving them; and that the things which a man has learned and seen are not appropriated to him until he wills and loves them; for the will is the man himself, and the understanding is his minister. If these things had been known, it might have been known and perceived that the man who is being regenerated is endowed by the Lord with both a new understanding and a new will, and that unless he has been endowed with both, he is not a new man; for the understanding is merely the seeing of the things which the man wills and loves, and thus, as before said, is only a minister. Consequently the first state of the man who is being regenerated is to be led through truths to good, and the second state is to be led by means of good; and when he is in this latter state, the order has been inverted, and he is then led by the Lord; consequently he is then in heaven, and hence in the tranquillity of peace.
 This state is what is meant by the "seventh day," and by the "seventh year," and also by the "jubilee;" that is, by the "sabbath," and by the "sabbath of sabbaths," and by the resulting rest of the land; according to these words in Moses:--
Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather the produce thereof; but in the seventh year shall be a sabbath of sabbaths for the land, a sabbath unto Jehovah; thou shall neither sow thy field, nor prune thy vineyard; that which groweth of itself of thy harvest thou shalt not reap (Lev. 25:3-5).
And concerning the jubilee:--
In the year of the jubilee, ye shall not sow, nor reap that which groweth of itself in it, not vintage its undressed vines (Lev. 25:11).
He who knows nothing about these two states must needs be ignorant of many things contained in the Word; for in the Word, especially the prophetic Word, the two states are distinctly described. Nay, without this knowledge, he cannot apprehend the internal sense of the Word, nor even many things which are in its literal sense, as for example the following which the Lord foretold concerning the last time of the present church, which is there called the "consummation of the age" in these passages:--
Then let them that are in Judea flee unto the mountains; let him that is upon the house not go down to take anything out of his house: and let him that is in the field not return back to take his garments (Matt. 24:16-18).
In that day, whosoever shall be upon the house, and his vessels in the house, let him not go down to lay them away; and whosoever is in the field let him likewise not return to the things that are behind him. Remember Lot‘s wife (Luke 17:31, 32).
That the second state is here described, and that no one ought to return from that state to the first, (n. 3650-3655, 5895, 5897, 8505, 8506, 8510, 8512, 8516).
 That these states are distinct from each other is also involved in these words in Moses:--
When thou makest a new house, thou shalt make a compass to thy roof. Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard nor thy field with mixed seed. Thou shalt not plough with an ox and an ass together. Thou shalt not put on a mixed garment of wool and linen together (Deut. 22:8-11; Lev. 19:19);
by these words is signified that he who is in the state of truth, that is, in the first state, cannot be in the state of good, that is, in the second state, nor the converse. The reason is that the one state is the inverse of the other; for in the first state the man looks from the world into heaven, but in the second state he looks from heaven into the world; because in the first state truths enter from the world through the intellect into the will, and there become goods, because of love; but in the second state the goods so formed go forth from heaven through the will into the intellect, and there appear in the form of faith. It is this faith which is saving, because it is from the good of love, that is, through the good of love from the Lord; for this faith belongs to charity in form.
AC 9275. And the needy of thy people shall eat. That this signifies conjunction through the good of charity with those who are in few truths and yet long to be instructed, is evident from the signification of "eating," as being communication and conjunction (n. 2187, 3596, 5643, 8001); from the signification of "the needy," as being those who by reason of ignorance are in few truths and yet long to be instructed (n. 9253); and from the signification of "people," here the people of Israel, as being those who are of the church (n. 4286, 6426, 6637, 8805). From all this it is evident that by "the needy of thy people shall eat," is signified the conjunction of the church with those who are in few truths and yet long to be instructed. The reason why it is said "conjunction through the good of charity," is that this good conjoins, as will be shown in the following article.
AC 9276. And what they leave the wild animal of the field shall eat. That this signifies conjunction through these with those who are in the delights of external truth, is evident from the signification of "what they leave," namely, the needy of the people, as being what they have left behind, thus that which is behind them, but here it denotes through them, because the subject treated of is the conjunction of the church with those who are in few truths, and here its conjunction with those who are in the delights of external truth (that the conjunction of the church with these latter is effected through the former, will be seen below); from the signification of "eating," as being communication and conjunction (n. 9275); and from the signification of "the wild animal of the field," as being those who are in the delights of external truth. For in the Word "beasts" signify the affections of truth and good, beasts of the flock the affections of internal truth and good, and beasts of the herd the affections of external truth and good; but "wild animals" such affections as belong to the most external truth; for relatively to internal affections these affections are wild animals, for they are affections of the sensuous things which are called pleasures and delights. The reason why they are delights of truth, and not so much of good, is that the sensuous things which communicate immediately with the world through the body, derive scarcely anything from spiritual good, for it is bodily and worldly loves that chiefly reside therein. That in the Word "beasts" signify the affections of truth and good, (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 719, 776, 1823, 2180, 2781, 3218, 3519, 5198, 9090); that beasts of the flock signify the affections of internal truth and good, and those of the herd the affections of external truth and good, (n. 5913, 8937, 9135); and that sensuous things communicate with the world and are the most external, (n. 4009, 5077, 5089, 5094, 5125, 5128, 5767, 6183, 6201, 6310, 6311, 6313, 6315, 6318, 6564, 6598, 6612, 6614, 6622, 6624, 6844, 6845, 6948, 6949, 7442, 7693, 9212, 9216). From what was shown in these places the nature of man’s sensuous mind relatively to his more interior things can be known, namely, that it is like a wild animal.
 The subject treated of in this verse in the internal sense is those who are in the good of charity, and also those who are in few truths and yet long to be instructed, and afterward those who are in the delights of external truth. These three kinds of men constitute the church. Those who are in the good of charity constitute the internal of the church; those who are in few truths and yet long to be instructed, thus who from good are in the affection of truth, constitute the external of the church; but those who are in the delights of external truth are the most external, and constitute as it were the circumference, and conclude the church.
 The conjunction of heaven with the human race, that is, the conjunction of the Lord through heaven with man, is effected by means of those who are in the good of charity, thus by the good of charity; for in this good the Lord is present, because the Lord is this good itself, because it proceeds from Him. By means of this good the Lord conjoins Himself with those who are in the affection of truth, because the affection of truth is from good, and as before said good is from the Lord. Through these again the Lord is with those who are in the delights of external truth, for the delights with them are for the most part derived from the loves of self and of the world, and very little from spiritual good. Such is the communication of heaven with man, that is, such is the communication of the Lord through heaven with him; consequently such is the conjunction.
 That the communication and conjunction of the Lord with the human race is of this nature, can be seen from the fact that such is the influx with every man of the church. By "a man of the church" is meant one who from the Lord is in the good of charity, and from this in the truths of faith; for charity from which is faith is the very church itself with man, because charity and faith are from the Lord; for the Lord flows into this good, which is the man‘s internal; and through it into the affection of truth, which is his external; and through this affection into the delights of external truth, which are in his uttermost external.
 As it is with the man of the church in particular, so also it is with the church in general, that is, with all who constitute the Lord’s church. The reason of this is that before the Lord the church universal is like a man, for before the Lord, His heaven, with which the church acts as a one, is as one man, as can be seen from what has been shown about heaven as a Grand Man at the end of many chapters of Genesis. And because this is so, the case is the same with a man of the church in particular; for a man of the church in particular is a heaven, a church, and a kingdom of the Lord in the least form.
 Moreover the case with the church is the same as with man himself, in that there are in him two fountains of life, namely, the Heart and the Lungs. It is known that the first of his life is the heart, and that the second of his life is the lungs, and that from these two fountains live all things in man both in general and in particular. The heart of the Grand Man (that is, of heaven and the church) is constituted of those who are in love to the Lord and in love toward the neighbor, thus, abstractedly from persons, of the love of the Lord and the love of the neighbor. And the lungs in the Grand Man (that is, in heaven and the church) are constituted of those who from the Lord are in charity toward the neighbor and from this in faith, and thus, abstractedly from persons, of charity and faith from the Lord. But all the other viscera and members in this Grand Man are constituted of those who are in external goods and truths, thus, abstractedly from persons, of the external goods and truths through which internal truths and goods can be brought in. As then the heart first flows into the lungs and through these into the viscera and members of the body, so likewise the Lord flows through the good of love into internal truths, and through these into external truths and goods.
 From all this it can be seen that there must by all means be a church on earth; and that without it the human race would perish, because it would be like a dying man, when the lungs and heart cease to be moved. Wherefore it is provided by the Lord that there shall always be a church on the earth, in which the Lord has been revealed by the Divine truth which is from Him; and on our earth this Divine truth is the Word. At the present day scarcely anyone believes this to be so, because scarcely anyone believes that everything of man‘s life is from the Lord through heaven. For men suppose that life is in themselves, and that this can subsist without any connection with heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord, although this opinion is utterly false.
 From all this it is now evident how it is to be understood that conjunction is effected through the good of charity with those who are in few truths and yet desire to be instructed, and through these with those who are in the delights of external truth, which things are signified by "letting the land lie fallow and releasing it in the seventh year, and that then the needy of the people should eat, and what they left the wild animal of the field should eat." But concerning the things above related, see what has been already shown, namely, that before the Lord heaven is like a man, and is therefore called the Grand Man (n. 1276, 2996, 2998, 3624-3649, 3741-3750, 4218-4228).
 That it is the same with the Lord’s church, seeing that His kingdom on earth is the church, which acts as a one with His kingdom in the heavens, (n. 4060, 7396, 9216); also that a man of the church is a heaven and a church in particular, (n. 1900, 1902, 3624-3631, 3634, 3884, 4292, 4523, 4524, 4625, 6013, 6057); that those who are in love to the Lord and in love toward the neighbor constitute the province of the heart in the Grand Man, and those who are in charity and thereby in faith from the Lord constitute the province of the lungs, (n. 3635, 3883-3896); that everything of man‘s life flows in from the Lord through heaven, (n. 2536, 2706, 2886-2889, 2893, 3001, 3318, 3484, 3742, 3743, 4151, 5846, 5850, 5986, 6053-6058, 6189-6215, 6307-6327, 6466-6495, 6598-6626, 6982, 6985-6996, 7004, 7055, 7056, 7058, 7147, 7270, 7343, 8321, 8685, 8701, 8717, 8728, 9109, 9110, 9216); that there is a connection of heaven with man, (n. 9216); and that without a church on earth the human race would perish, (n. 468, 637, 2853, 4545).
AC 9277. So shalt thou do to thy vineyard, and to thine olive-yard. That this signifies that so it is with spiritual good and with celestial good, is evident from the signification of a "vineyard," as being the spiritual church (n. 1069, 9139), thus spiritual good, which is the good of charity toward the neighbor, for this good makes the spiritual church; and from the signification of an "olive-yard," as being the celestial church, thus celestial good, that is, the good of love to the Lord, for this good makes the celestial church. (What the spiritual church is, and what is its good; and what the celestial church is, and what is its good; and also what is the difference between them, (n. 2046, 2227, 2669, 2708, 2715, 2718, 2935, 2937, 2954, 3166, 3235, 3236, 3240, 3246, 3374, 3833, 3887, 3969, 4138, 4286, 4493, 4585, 4938, 5113, 5150, 5922, 6289, 6296, 6366, 6427, 6435, 6500, 6647, 6648, 7091, 7233, 7877, 7977, 7992, 8042, 8152, 8234, 8521).
 That an "olive-yard" signifies the celestial church, and thus celestial good, is evident from the passages in the Word where the "olive-tree" is mentioned; as in Moses:--Thou shalt plant vineyards and till them, but the wine thou shalt not drink, nor gather; for the worm shall eat it. Thou shalt have olive-trees throughout all thy border, but thou shall not anoint thyself with the oil, for thine olive-tree shall be shaken (Deut. 28:39, 40); where the subject treated of is the curse if other gods were worshiped, and if the statutes and judgments were not kept. "Olive-trees in all thy border" denote the goods of celestial love which are from the Lord through the Word in the whole church; "not being anointed with the oil" denotes that nevertheless they are not in this good; "thine olive-tree shall be shaken" denotes that this good will perish. In like manner in Micah:--
Thou shalt tread the olive, but shall not anoint thee with oil; and the must, but shalt not drink the wine (Micah 6:15).
 In Amos:--
I have smitten you with blasting and mildew; your many gardens, and your vineyards, and your fig-trees, and your olive-trees, shall the caterpillar devour; yet have ye not returned unto Me (Amos 4:9);
"vineyards" denote the goods of faith; and "olive-trees" the goods of love; the punishment for not receiving these goods is signified by "the caterpillar devouring the olive-trees." In Habakkuk:--
The fig-tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the vines; the labor of the olive shall deceive, and the field shall yield no food (Habakkuk 3:17);
where "the fig-tree" denotes natural good; "the vine," spiritual good; "the olive," celestial good; and "the field," the church. In Zechariah:--
Two olive-trees were beside the lampstand, on the right side of the bowl, and the other on the left side. These are the two sons of pure oil, that stand beside the Lord of the whole earth (Zech. 4:3, 11, 14);
the "two olive-trees beside the lampstand" denote celestial and spiritual good, which are at the Lord’s right and left; "the lampstand" signifies the Lord as to Divine truth.
 In the book of Judges:--
Jotham said to the citizens of Shechem who made Abimelech king, The trees went to anoint a king over them; and they said unto the olive-tree, Reign thou over us. But the olive-tree said unto them, should I leave my fatness, which God and men honor in me, and go to sway myself over the trees? And the trees said to the fig-tree, Come thou, and reign over us. But the fig-tree said unto them, Should I cause to cease my greatness, and my good fruit, and go to sway myself over the trees? Then the trees said unto the vine, Come thou, and reign over us. But the vine said unto them, Should I cause to cease my must, which cheereth God and men, and go to sway myself over the trees? Then said all the trees unto the bramble, Come thou and reign over us. And the bramble said unto the trees, If in truth ye anoint me king over you, come ye, and put your trust in my shadow; but if not, let fire come out of the bramble, and devour the cedars of Lebanon (Judges 9:7-15);
what these things specifically involve cannot be known unless it is known what is signified by "the olive-tree," "the fig-tree," "the vine," and "the bramble." "The olive-tree" signifies the internal good of the celestial church; "the fig-tree," the external good of that church (n. 4231, 5113); "the vine," the good of the spiritual church; but "the bramble" signifies spurious good. These words therefore involve that the people who are here meant by the trees, were not willing that either celestial good or spiritual good should reign over them, but spurious good, and that they chose this in preference to the other goods. "Fire out of the bramble" denotes the evil of concupiscence; "the cedars of Lebanon that it would consume" denote the truths of good.
 As "the olive-tree" signified the good of love from the Lord and to the Lord, therefore the cherubs in the midst of the house or of the temple were made of olive wood, and in like manner the doors leading to the sanctuary (1 Kings 6:23-33); for the "cherubs" and also the "doors of the sanctuary" signified the guard and providence of the Lord that there should be no approach to Him except through the good of celestial love; and therefore they were of olive wood. From all this it can be seen why the tabernacle and the altar were anointed with oil; also the priests, and afterward the kings; and why the oil of the olive was used for the lamps; for this "oil" signified the good of love from the Lord (n. 886, 3728, 4582, 4638); and the "anointing" signified that so they might represent the Lord.
AC 9278. Six days thou shalt do thy works. That this signifies the state of labor and of combat when the man is in external delights that are to be conjoined with internal, is evident from the signification of the "six days" which precede the seventh, as being a state of labor and of combat (n. 737, 900, 8510, 8888, 8975). The labor and combat then are signified by the "works" which they were to do in the six days. By the "works of the six days," and the "rest on the seventh day," are signified those things which come forth in man in his first, and in his second state, during regeneration, and also those which come forth in him when he has been regenerated. Concerning the first and second states of man during regeneration, (n. 9274); and concerning those things which come forth with him when he has been regenerated, (n. 9213). These things take place to the end that external things may be conjoined with internal; for there is an external man, which is also called natural; and there is an internal man, which is also called spiritual. The external man communicates with the world, and the internal man with heaven.
 The Divine order is that heaven should rule the world in man, and not the world rule heaven in him; for when heaven rules man, then the Lord rules him. Man is born into loving the world and himself more than heaven and the Lord. And because this is opposite to Divine order, there must be an inversion by means of regeneration; and this inversion is effected when the things of heaven and the Lord are loved more than those of the world and of self. This is the reason why the man who has been regenerated, as also he who is in heaven, is alternately in external and in internal things; for external things are thereby disposed so as to agree with internal things; and finally to be subject to them.
 When a man is in external things, he is in labor and combat, for he is then in a life which savors of the world, into which the bells flow from all sides, continually endeavoring to infest, and even to subjugate in the man the things of heaven; but the Lord continually protects and sets him free. From this arise the labor and combat which are signified by the "six days of the week in which works are to be done." But when the man is in internal things, then, because he is in heaven with the Lord, the labor and combat cease, and he is in the tranquility of peace, in which tranquility conjunction also is effected. These are the things which are signified by the "seventh day". That the interiors of man have been created according to the image of heaven, and his exteriors according to the image of the world; thus that man is a heaven and a world in a little form, and according to the maxim of the ancients, is a microcosm, may be seen above (n. 6057); and consequently that it is according to Divine order that the Lord through heaven directs the world in man, and by no means the reverse.
 The nature of the labor and combat when a man is in external things, can be seen from the fact that he is then in such a state as to be in heat from the world; and that he is consequently in such a shade that he cannot conceive otherwise than that external things flow into internal, and consequently that the eye sees and the ear hears of itself, and that their objects bring forth thoughts, and produce the intellect, and that thereupon he is able of himself to believe, and likewise to love God; consequently from the world to see heaven. From this fallacy he can scarcely be withdrawn until he has been raised from eternal things into internal, and thus into the light of heaven. Then for the first time he perceives that the things in him which are of the world, thus which are of the body and its senses, see and act through influx from heaven, that is, through heaven from the Lord, and not so all from themselves. From this it is evident why a sensuous man believes that everything of his life is from the world and from nature; that there is no hell, nor heaven; and finally that there is no God; consequently why he ridicules everything of the church in so far as he is concerned; but is in favor of it in so far as it concerns the simple, so that they may be in bonds, in addition to those of laws.
 From this it can be known what it is to be in external things, and not at the same time in internal things, and that when a man is in external things, he is in cold and shade in respect to the things which are of heaven and which are of the Lord. From this also it can be known who in this world are intelligent and wise, namely, those who are in the truth and good of the church, because these are wise from heaven; and also who are foolish and insane, namely, those who are not in the good and truth of the church, because their knowledge is derived solely from the world; and that those among them who by means of the sciences of the world have confirmed themselves against the truths and goods of the church, are more insane and foolish that the rest, however much they may believe themselves intelligent and wise in comparison with others, and may call those simple who are in the good of life from the truths of doctrine; when yet the simplicity of these latter is wisdom in the eyes of the angels, and moreover after death they are raised by the Lord into angelic wisdom.
 That this is the case, the Lord also teaches in Matthew:--
Therefore speak I by parables; because seeing they see not, and hearing they hear not, neither do they understand (Matt. 13:13).
And in John:--
I will send the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive; for it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him. Yet a little while, and the world shall see Me no more (John 14:17, 19);
"the Spirit of truth whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth Him not, neither knoweth Him," signifies that the world will not acknowledge the Lord with faith of the heart, because external things which are of the world will obscure. Consequently who at the present day adores Him as the Lord of the whole heaven and the whole earth (Matt. 18:18)? and yet all who are in the heavens, thus all who are in internal things, regard the Lord as their only God.
AC 9279. And on the seventh day thou shalt cease. That this signifies the state of good when the man is in internal things, and his tranquillity of peace then, is evident from the signification of "the seventh day," or "Sabbath," as being when the man is in good, and is led by the Lord by means of good (n. 8495, 8510, 8890, 8893); and from the signification of "ceasing," or "resting from works," as being the tranquility of peace then. Concerning this state see what has been said and shown above, (n. 9274, 9278).
 But it shall be briefly stated why, when a man is in good, he is in internal things. Man‘s External Things have been formed according to the Image of the World, and his Internal Things according to the Image of Heaven (n. 6057); wherefore also his external things receive those which are of the world, but his internal things those which are of heaven. The external things which are of the world are opened in man successively from infancy even to manhood; in like manner the internal things. But the external things are opened by means of those which are of the world, whereas the internal things are opened by means of those which are of heaven. The things thus opened are twofold, namely, those of the understanding, and those of the will. The things of the understanding are opened by means of those which hear relation to truth, and the things of the will by means of those which hear relation to good; for all things in the universe, both those in the world and those in heaven, hear relation to truth and to good. Those which bear relation to truth are called knowledges; and those which bear relation to good are called loves and affections. From this it is clear what, and of what nature, are the things which open the life of man.
 As regards the internal man, which as above said has been formed according to the image of heaven, it is the knowledges of the truth and good of faith from the Lord, and consequently of faith in the Lord, that open the things of its understanding; and it is the affections of truth and good, which are of love from the Lord, and consequently of love to the Lord, that open the things of its will, and consequently form within him heaven, thus the Lord in an image, for heaven is an image of the Lord. From this it is that heaven is called the Grand Man (n. 1276, 2996, 2998, 3624-3649, 3741-3750, 4218-4228); that man has been formed according to the image of heaven and the image of the world (n. 3628, 4523, 4524, 6013, 6057); and that a regenerate man, and an angel, is a heaven and a church in the least form (n. 1900, 3624, 3634, 3884, 4040, 4041, 4292, 4625, 6013, 6057, 6605, 6626, 8988). From all this it can be seen why, when a man is in good, he is in internal things. But concerning the opening of man’s internal and external things, of the Lord‘s Divine mercy more in what follows.
AC 9280. That thine ox and thine ass may rest. That this signifies the tranquillity of peace at the same time for external goods and truths, is evident from the signification of "resting," when said of the seventh day or Sabbath, as being the tranquillity of peace (n. 9279); and from the signification of "an ox," as being external good, and of "an ass," as being external truth (n. 2781, 9134, 9255).-- That beasts signified affections and inclinations, such as man has in common with them, see (n. 45, 46, 142, 143, 246, 714, 715, 776, 2179, 2180, 2781, 3218, 3519, 5198, 5913, 8937, 9090, 9135). That beasts were employed in the sacrifices in accordance with their signification, see (n. 1823, 2180, 2805, 2807, 2830, 3519). That all things in the three kingdoms of nature are representative of the spiritual and celestial things of the Lord’s kingdom, (n. 1632, 1881, 2758, 2987-3003, 3213-3227, 3483, 3624-3649, 4939, 5116, 5427, 5428, 5477, 8211): And that there are correspondences of all things, (n. 2987-3003, 3213-3226, 3337-3352, 3472-3485, 3624-3649, 3745-3750, 3883-3896, 4039-4055, 4218-4228, 4318-4331, 4403-4420, 4523-4533, 4622-4634, 4652-4660, 4791-4806, 4931-4952, 5050-5062, 5171-5189, 5377-5396, 5552-5573, 5711-5727, 8615).
 These quotations have been brought together to show that not only all beasts, but also all things in the world, correspond, and according to their correspondences represent and signify spiritual and celestial things, and in the supreme sense the Divine things of the Lord; and from this to show the nature of the Ancient Churches, which were called representative churches; namely, that all their holy rites represented the things of the Lord and His kingdom, thus the things of love and faith in Him; and that by means of such things heaven was then conjoined with the man of the church; for the internal things were presented in heaven. To the same end the Word of the Lord was given, for each and all things therein, down to the smallest not, correspond and have a signification; consequently through the Word alone is there a connection of heaven with man.
 That this is the case no one at this day knows; and therefore when a natural man reads the Word, and searches where the Divine lies hidden in it; and when on account of its ordinary style he does not find it in the letter, he first begins to hold it in low esteem, and then to deny that it has been dictated by the Divine Itself, and sent down through heaven to man; for he does not know that the Word is Divine by virtue of its spiritual sense, which is not apparent in the letter, but nevertheless is in the letter; and that this sense is presented in heaven when a man reads the Word with reverence; and that this sense treats of the Lord and His kingdom. It is these Divine things from which the Word is Divine, and by means of which holiness flows through heaven from the Lord down into the literal sense, and into the very letter itself. But so long as a man does not know what the spiritual is, he cannot know what the spiritual sense is, thus not what correspondence is. And so long as a man loves the world more than heaven, and himself more than the Lord, he does not wish to know or apprehend these things; although all the intelligence of ancient times was from this source, as is also the wisdom of the angels. The mystical secrets which many diviners have in vain busied themselves to trace in the Word, lie hidden solely in its spiritual sense.
AC 9281. And the son of thy handmaid, and the sojourner, may take breath. That this signifies the state of life of those outside the church who are in truths and goods, is evident from the signification of "the son of a handmaid," as being those who are in the affection of external truth; for by "a son" is signified truth (n. 489, 491, 533, 1147, 2623, 2813, 3373, 3704, 4257), and by "a handmaid" is signified external affection (n. 1895, 2567, 3835, 3849, 7780, 8993); and from the signification of "a sojourner," as being those who wish to be instructed in the truths and goods of the church (n. 1463, 8007, 8013, 9196). That by "the son of a handmaid," and "a sojourner," are here signified those who are outside the church, is because in the preceding portion of this verse those who are within the church were treated of; and for this reason those who are without the church are meant by the "sons of a handmaid," and those who have not been born within the church by "sojourners;" because the former are of a lower descent, and the latter are of a different lineage. And from the signification of "breathing," as being the state of life in respect to the truths and goods of faith. The reason why "breathing" signifies this state of life, is that the lungs, whose office it is to breathe, correspond to the life of faith from charity, which is spiritual life (n. 97, 1119, 3351, 3635, 3883-3896, 9229).
 Man has an outward and an inward breathing; the outward breathing is from the world, but the inward is from heaven. When a man dies, the outward breathing ceases; but the inward breathing, which during his life in the world is tacit and imperceptible to him, continues. This breathing is altogether according to the affection of truth, thus according to the life of his faith. But those who are in no faith, as is the case with those who are in hell, do not draw their breathing from within, but from without, thus in a contrary manner; and therefore when they approach an angelic society, where there is breathing from within, they begin to be suffocated, and become like images of death (n. 3894). Therefore they cast themselves down headlong into their hell, where they resume their former breathing, which is contrary to that of heaven.
 As the breathing corresponds to the life of faith, therefore the life of faith is also signified by the "soul (anima)" (n. 9050), from "animation," which denotes the breathing; and therefore also the breath is called the "spirit," as in the expressions "drawing the breath (spiritus)," and "letting out the breath (spiritus)." From this also in the original tongue, "spirits" are so called from the wind, and in the Word are compared to "the wind;" as in John:--
The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the voice thereof, but knowest not whence it cometh, or whither it goeth: so is everyone that is born of the Spirit (John 3:8).
From this also it is evident what is signified by its being said that after His resurrection the Lord, when speaking with His disciples, "breathed on them, and said unto them, Receive ye the Holy Spirit" (John 20:22).
AC 9282. And all that I have said unto you ye shall keep. That this signifies that the commandments, the judgments, and the statutes are to be done, is evident from the signification of "all that Jehovah had said unto them," as being all things of the life, of worship, and of the civil state; for the things of life were called "commandments," those of worship were called "statutes," and those of the civil state were called "judgments" (n. 8972); and from the signification of "keeping" or serving, as being to do, for by doing them they are observed As the laws of life, of worship, and of the civil state, are not anything with a man so long as they are in his understanding only, but become something with him when they are in the will, therefore it is said in the Word throughout that they must be "done;" for doing is of the will; but knowing, understanding, acknowledging, and believing are of the understanding. These latter however have no being with man until they become of the will, nor do they come forth with him until they become of the understanding from the will; for the being of man is to will, and the coming forth is to acknowledge and believe therefrom. The things which have no such being and coming forth with a man are not appropriated to him, but stand without, and are not as yet received into the house; and therefore they do not contribute anything to the eternal life of the man; for unless such things have been made of the life, they are dissipated in the other life; those only remaining which are of the heart, that is, of the will and from this of the understanding. This being so, it is said in the Word throughout that the commandments and the statutes must be "done;" as in Moses:--
Ye shall do My judgments, and keep My statutes, to walk therein. Ye shall therefore keep My statutes, and My judgments; which if a man do, he shall them by them (Lev. 17:4, 5; Matt. 5:20; 5:24-27; 16:27; John 3:21).
AC 9283. And ye shall not mention the name of other gods. That this signifies that they must not think from the doctrine of falsity, is evident from the signification of "name," as being everything of faith and everything of worship in the complex (n. 2724, 3237, 6887, 8274, 8882), here everything of the doctrine of falsity, because by "other gods" are signified falsities (n. 4544, 7873, 8867); and from the signification of "to mention," as being to think. That "to mention" denotes to think is because mentioning is of the mouth; and by those things which are of the mouth are signified those which are of the thought. The reason is that man‘s speech flows from his thought; for man has thought which speaks, and thought which does not speak. The thought which speaks is that with which the speech makes a one; but the thought which does not speak is that with which the speaking thought and the consequent speech make a one with the sincere and the just, but not with the insincere and the unjust. For the thought which does not speak is the man’s higher or interior intellectual proceeding from his very will; but the thought which speaks is his lower or more external intellectual that is formed from the higher or interior, to present, or to counterfeit, before the world, the things of justice and equity, and of good and truth.
 This clearly shows the nature of the sincere and just man, and that of the insincere and unjust man, namely, that with the sincere and just man the internal man has been formed according to the image of heaven, and the external man according to the image of the world as subordinate to heaven (n. 9279); and that with the insincere and unjust man the internal man has been formed according to the image of hell, and the external man according to the image of heaven as subordinate to hell. For by the external he counterfeits the things of heaven, and applies the rational things which are from heaven to favor his concupiscences, and also to deceive. From all this it is evident that the states of life with the just and the unjust are inverted in respect to each other.
AC 9284. And it shall not be heard upon the mouth. That this signifies that obedience is not to be paid with any affirmation, is evident from the signification of "hearing," as being to obey (n. 2542, 3869, 4652-4660, 5017, 7216, 8361); and from the signification of "not being upon the mouth," when said of the doctrine of falsity which is signified by "the name of other gods," as being not to affirm. The reason why the name of other gods was not to be mentioned, nor to be heard upon the mouth, was that heavenly things, and the Divine things of the Lord, might be represented by all the statutes, judgments, and commandments that were commanded; and they were represented so long as Jehovah was named and worshiped, for then the Divine of the Lord was present, and heaven with Him. But when other gods were named and worshiped, infernal things were represented, because spirits from the hells were then present who wished to be worshiped as gods; for those who are in the hells are continually seeking this, because the loves of self and of the world reign there (n. 3881). EXODUS 23:10-13 previous - next - text - summary - Exodus - Full Page
|Author: E. Swedenborg (1688-1772).||Design: I.J. Thompson, Feb 2002.||www.BibleMeanings.info|