Jesus Lives! - The Lord God
Jesus Christ: Creator, Sustainer and Redeemer of Heaven and Earth
 First: What dignities and riches are and whence they are. In the most ancient times dignities and riches were totally different from what they by successive stages have become in later times. In the most ancient times dignities were such as exist in the relationship between parents and children. They were dignities of love, full of respect and veneration, not because children received birth from their parents but because they received instruction and wisdom from them. This is a second birth, in itself spiritual, because it was the birth of their spirit. This was the only dignity in the most ancient times; for then tribes, families and households dwelt separately, and not under governments as at the present day. It was the head of the family in whom this dignity was vested. Those times were called by the men of old the Golden Age.
 After those times, however, there gradually crept in the love of ruling from the mere delight of that love; and because there arose at the same time enmity and hostility against those who would not submit to be ruled, tribes, families and households from necessity banded themselves together into communities, and set over themselves one whom they at first called judge, afterwards prince, and finally king and emperor. Then also they began to protect themselves by towers, earthworks and walls. From the judge, prince, king and emperor, as from the head into the body, the lust of dominion spread like a contagion among many. From this arose degrees of dignities, and also honours according to them; and with these the love of self and pride in one’s own prudence.
 The same thing happened in the case of the love of riches. In the most ancient times when tribes and families had dwelling places apart from one another there was no other love of riches than the desire to possess the necessaries of life, which they procured for themselves by means of their flocks and herds, and their lands, fields and gardens from which they derived their living. Among their necessaries of life were also beautiful houses, furnished with useful articles of every kind, and also clothing. Parents, children, men-servants and maid-servants, who formed the household, were engaged in the care and labour connected with all these things.
 After the love of dominion had entered and destroyed this state of society there crept in also the love of possessing wealth beyond their necessities; and it grew to such a pitch that it desired to possess the wealth of all others. These two loves are like blood-relations; for he who wishes to rule over all things wishes also to possess all things; thus all others become servants, and they alone masters. This is clearly evident from those within the papal world who have exalted their dominion even into heaven to the throne of the Lord, upon which they have placed themselves. They also seek to acquire the wealth of the whole earth, and to increase their treasures without end.
 Second: What the nature of the love of dignities and riches for their own sake is, and what the love of them for the sake of uses. The love of dignities and honours for their own sake is the love of self and this in its essence is the love of ruling from the love of self; and the love of riches and wealth for their own sake is the love of the world, and this in its essence is the love of possessing the goods of others by any device whatever. But the love of dignities and riches for the sake of uses is the love of uses, which is the same as the love of the neighbour; since that for the sake of which a man acts is the end from which he acts, and ranks as first or primary in importance while all other things are means and are secondary.
 Moreover, the love of dignities and honours for their own sake, which is the same as the love of self, and in its essence the same as the love of ruling from the love of self, is the love of the proprium; and man’s proprium is altogether evil. Therefore it is said that man is born into all evil, and that what he has by heredity is nothing but evil. What man has by heredity is his proprium in which he is and into which he comes through the love of self, and especially through the love of ruling from the love of self; for the man who is in that love regards himself only, and thus immerses his thoughts and affections in his proprium. Hence it is that in the love of self dwells a love of doing evil. The reason for this is that the man does not love his neighbour but himself only; and he who loves himself only sees others as outside himself or as insignificant or of no account, and he despises them in comparison with himself and thinks nothing of inflicting injury upon them.
 It is from this cause that he who is in the love of ruling from the love of self thinks nothing of defrauding his neighbour, committing adultery with his wife, slandering him, breathing revenge against him even to death, treating him cruelly, and similar evil doings. Such a man derives his character from the fact that the devil himself with whom he has become conjoined and by whom he is led, is nothing else than the love of ruling from the love of self; and he who is led by the devil, that is, by hell, is led into all these evils; and he is led continually by the delights of these evils. For this reason all who are in hell have the desire to inflict injury upon all; whereas those who are in heaven have the desire to do good to everyone. In consequence of this opposition there exists that intermediate state in which man is placed; and thus he is, as it were, in equilibrium, so that he can turn either to hell or to heaven; and so far as he favours the evils of self-love he turns towards hell, but so far as he removes these evils from himself he turns towards heaven.
 It has been granted me to feel the quality of the delight of ruling from the love of self and also how great it is. I was let into it that I might know this. It was such as to surpass all the delights that are in the world. It was a delight possessing the whole mind from its inmost things to its outermost; but in the body it was felt as something pleasant and agreeable with a feeling of elation in the breast. It was also granted me to perceive that from this delight as from their fountain-head there issued the delights of evils of all kinds, as adultery, revenge, fraud, slander, and evil-doing in general. There is a similar delight also in the love of possessing the wealth of others by any device whatever, and from that love, in the lusts which are derived from it; yet not in the same degree unless that love is joined to the love of self. In the case, however, of dignities and riches that are loved not for their own sake but for the sake of uses, this is not a love of dignities and riches, but a love of uses, to which dignities and riches are subservient as means: this is a heavenly love; but more will be said of this in following numbers.
 Third: These two loves are distinct from each other, as heaven and hell are. This is clear from what has just been stated; and to it I will add, that all who are in the love of ruling from a love of self whoever they are, whether great or small, are as to their spirit in hell; and that all who are in that love are in the love of evils of all kinds; and if they do not commit them, still in their spirit they believe them to be allowable, and therefore they commit them in the body when dignity and honour and fear of the law do not stand in the way. Further, the love of ruling from the love of self has deeply lodged within it hatred against God, and consequently against the Divine things that pertain to the Church, and especially against the Lord. If they acknowledge God they do so with the lips only; and if they acknowledge the Divine things that pertain to the Church they do so from a fear of losing honour. This love has deeply lodged within it hatred against the Lord, because lying deep within this love is the desire to be God, for it worships and adores itself alone. Therefore, if anyone honours it so far as to say that it has Divine wisdom and is the ruling deity of the world, it whole-heartedly loves him.
 It is otherwise with the love of dignities and riches for the sake of uses; for this is a heavenly love, because, as has been said, it is the same as the love of the neighbour. By uses are meant goods; and therefore by doing uses is meant doing goods, and by doing uses or goods is meant serving others and ministering to them. Although those who do so are in the possession of dignity and wealth, still they regard them only as means for performing uses, thus for serving and ministering. Such are meant by these words of the Lord:--
Whosoever will be great among you, let him be your minister; And whosoever will be chief, let him be your servant. (Matt. 20:26, 27).
Such also are they to whom dominion in heaven is entrusted by the Lord; for to them dominion is the means for performing uses or goods, thus for serving; and when uses or goods are their ends or loves it is not they who rule but the Lord, for all good is from Him.
 Fourth: Man hardy knows the difference between these two loves. This is because the majority of those who possess dignity and wealth also perform uses; but they do not know whether they perform them for the sake of themselves or for the sake of the uses; and they know this the less because the love of self and the world has in it more of the ardent zeal of performing uses than is the case with those who are not in the love of self and the world. The former, however, perform uses for the sake of fame or gain, thus for the sake of themselves; while those who perform uses for the sake of uses, or goods for the sake of goods, do so not from themselves, but from the Lord.
 The difference between these loves can hardly be recognised by man, because man does not know whether he is led by the devil or by the Lord. The man who is led by the devil performs uses for the sake of self and the world; but he that is led by the Lord performs uses for the sake of the Lord and heaven. All those who shun evils as sins perform uses from the Lord, while all who do not shun evils as sins perform uses from the devil; for evil is the devil, and use or good is the Lord. In this way and in no other is the difference recognised. In outer form they both appear alike, but in internal form they are totally unlike. One is like gold within which is dross, but the other is like gold with pure gold within. One is like artificial fruit, which in outer form appears like fruit from the tree, although it is only coloured wax while within is dust or pitch; but the other is like excellent fruit, pleasant to the taste and smell, and containing seeds within.
 The natural man, however, unless enlightened by the spiritual man, that is, unless he is at the same time spiritual, does not see that honours and wealth may be blessings and may also be curses, and that when they are blessings they are from God, and when they are curses they are from the devil. Moreover, it is well known that honours and wealth are bestowed by the devil, for from this he is called the prince of the world. Since then it is not known when honours and wealth are blessings and when they are curses, it shall be set forth in the following order:
1. Honours and wealth are blessings and they are curses.
2. When honours and wealth are blessings they are spiritual and eternal, but when they are curses they are temporal and fleeting.
3. Honours and wealth that are curses, in comparison with those that are blessings, are as nothing compared with everything, or as that which in itself has no existence compared with that which has existence in itself.
 Moreover, anyone may know why they are blessings and why they are curses if only he will give a little rational consideration to the matter; that is, he may know that they are blessings with those who do not set their heart on them, and curses with those who do set their heart on them. To set the heart on them is to love oneself in them; and not to set the heart on them is to love uses and not self in them. It has been stated above (n. 215), what the difference is between those two loves, and what the nature of that difference is. To this it must be added that some are led astray by dignities and wealth but some are not. They lead astray when they excite the loves of a man’s proprium, which is the love of self; and it has also been stated that this is an infernal love, which is called the devil; but they do not lead astray when they do not excite this love.
 Both the wicked and the good are raised to honours and advanced to wealth because the wicked as well as the good perform uses; the wicked do so for the sake of their own personal honours and gain, but the good for the sake of the honour and profit of the office (for which they work). The good regard the honour and profit of the office as principal causes or motives, and personal honours and gain as instrumental causes; but the wicked regard personal honours and gain as principal causes, and the honour and profit of the office as instrumental causes. Yet who does not see that the person, whatever his function and his honour, is for the sake of the office which he administers, and not the reverse? Who does not see that the judge is for the sake of justice, the magistrate for the sake of the common welfare, the king for the sake of the kingdom, and not the reverse? Therefore everyone is invested with dignity and honour, according to the laws of the kingdom, in keeping with the high office which he administers; and who does not see that the difference between the two loves is like that between what is principal and what is instrumental? The man who attributes to himself, that is, to his own person, the honour belonging to his office appears in the spiritual world, when visual representation of it is made, like a man with his body inverted, feet up and head down.
 Second: When dignities and wealth are blessings they are spiritual and eternal, but when they are curses they are temporal and fleeting. There are dignities and wealth in heaven as in the world, for there are governments there, and consequently administrations and functions. There is also trade there, and consequently wealth, since there are societies and communities there. The universal heaven is divided into two kingdoms, one of which is called the celestial kingdom, the other the spiritual kingdom. Each kingdom is divided into innumerable societies, greater and smaller, all which, and likewise all within which, are arranged according to differences of love and of wisdom thence derived; the societies of the celestial kingdom according to the differences of celestial love, or love to the Lord, and the societies of the spiritual kingdom according to the differences of spiritual love, or love towards the neighbour. Because there are such societies, and because all who are in them have been men in the world and therefore retain the loves they had in the world, with this difference that they are now spiritual, and that the dignities and wealth are spiritual in the spiritual kingdom and celestial in the celestial kingdom, therefore those who have love and wisdom more than others have dignities and wealth more than others; and these are they to whom dignities and wealth were blessings in the world.
 From these considerations may be evident the nature of spiritual dignities and wealth, namely, that they pertain to the office, or use, and not to the person. A person who is in high office in the spiritual world is in magnificence and glory, like that of kings on earth; yet such do not regard the dignity itself as anything, but the uses in the administration and discharge of which they are engaged. They receive everyone indeed the honours of his high office, but they do not attribute these to themselves, but to the uses; and as all uses are from the Lord, they attribute the honours to the Lord, from whom they are derived (a quo). Such, therefore, are spiritual dignities and wealth which are eternal.
 It is otherwise, however, with those to whom dignities and wealth in the world were curses. Because they attributed these to themselves and not to the uses, and because they did not desire that uses should control them but that they should control uses, which they regarded as uses only so far as they ministered to their own honour and glory, they are accordingly in hell, where they are vile slaves, despised and miserable. Therefore, because these dignities and wealth perish they are called temporal and fleeting. Concerning these two classes the Lord teaches as follows:
Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where thieves break through and steal: But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt, and where thieves do not break through nor steal: For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. (Matt. 6:19-21).
 Third: Honours and wealth that are curses, in comparison with those that are blessings, are as nothing compared with everything, or as that which in itself has no existence compared with that which has existence in itself. Everything that perishes and comes to nothing is inwardly in itself nothing. Outwardly, indeed, it is something, and even appears to be much, and to some everything, as long as it lasts; but inwardly in itself it is not. It is like a surface with nothing beneath; and like a character on the stage in royal robes until the play is ended; but that which remains to eternity is in itself something perpetually, thus everything; and it also Is, for it does not cease to be.
1. What temporal things are, and what eternal things are.
2. Man is in himself temporal and the Lord is in Himself eternal; and therefore nothing can proceed from man but what is temporal, and nothing from the Lord but what is eternal.
3. Temporal things separate eternal things from themselves, and eternal things conjoin temporal things to themselves.
4. The Lord conjoins man to Himself by means of appearances;
5. And also by means of correspondences.
 Second: Man is in himself temporal and the Lord is in Himself eternal, and therefore nothing can proceed from man but what is temporal, and nothing from the Lord but what is eternal. It was stated above that man in himself is temporal, and the Lord in Himself eternal. Since nothing can proceed from anyone but that which is in him, it follows that nothing can proceed from man but what is temporal, and nothing from the Lord but what is eternal. For the infinite cannot proceed from the finite: it is a contradiction to say that it can. Still the infinite can proceed from the finite-not from the finite but from the infinite through the finite. On the other hand, the finite cannot proceed from the infinite; and to say that it can is also a contradiction. The finite, however, can be produced from the infinite, but this is a creating, not a proceeding. On this subject see THE ANGELIC WISDOM CONCERNING THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM from beginning to end. Therefore, if the finite proceeds from the Lord, as happens in the case of many things in man, it does not proceed from the Lord but from man; and it can be said to proceed from the Lord through man, because it so appears.
 This may be illustrated by these words of the Lord:
Let your communication be: Yea, yea; Nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil. (Matt. 5:37).
Such is the speech of all in the third heaven; for they never reason about Divine things, discussing whether a thing is so or not so, but they see in themselves from the Lord whether it is so or not. Thus it is that one reasons about Divine things whether they are so or not, because he does not see them from the Lord, but desires to see them from himself; and what man sees from himself is evil. Still the Lord desires that man should not only think and speak about Divine things, but that he should also reason about them to the end that he may see that a thing is or is not so; and this thought, speech and reasoning, provided the end is to see the truth, may be said to be from the Lord in man; although it is from the man until he sees the truth and acknowledges it. Meanwhile it is only from the Lord that he can think, speak and reason; for he has this power from the two faculties, liberty and rationality, and these faculties man has from the Lord alone.
 Third: Temporal things separate eternal things from themselves, and eternal things conjoin temporal things to themselves. That temporal things separate eternal things from themselves means that man who is temporal does this by acting from the temporal things in himself; and that eternal things conjoin temporal things to themselves means that the Lord who is eternal does this by acting from the eternal things in Himself as was said above. In what has gone before it was shown that there is a conjunction of the Lord with man and a reciprocal conjunction of man with the Lord; but that the reciprocal conjunction of man with the Lord is not from man, but from the Lord; moreover, that man’s will is in opposition to the Lord’s will; or, what is the same thing, that man’s own prudence is in opposition to the Divine Providence of the Lord. From these considerations it follows that man by acting from his temporal things separates from himself the eternal things of the Lord, but that the Lord conjoins His eternal things to the temporal things of man, that is, He conjoins Himself to man and man to Himself. As these matters have already been fully treated it is not necessary to add further confirmation.
 Fourth: The Lord conjoins man to Himself by means of appearances. For it is an appearance that man from himself loves the neighbour, does good and speaks truth; and unless these things appeared to man as from himself he would not love the neighbour, do good and speak truth, and therefore would not be conjoined to the Lord. Since then love, good and truth are from the Lord, it is clear that the Lord by means of appearances conjoins man to Himself. But this appearance, and the conjunction of the Lord with man and man’s reciprocal conjunction with the Lord by means of it, have been fully treated above.
 Fifth: The Lord conjoins man to Himself by means of correspondences. This is done by means of the Word (medio Verbo), the sense of the Letter of which consists of pure correspondences. That by means of this sense there is a conjunction of the Lord with man and a reciprocal conjunction of man with the Lord has been shown in THE DOCTRINE OF THE NEW JERUSALEM CONCERNING THE SACRED SCRIPTURE, from beginning to end.
1. It is from the Divine Providence that man by death puts off what is natural and temporal, and puts on what is spiritual and eternal.
2. The Lord by His Divine Providence conjoins Himself to natural things by means of spiritual things, and to temporal things by means of eternal things, according to uses.
3. The Lord conjoins Himself to uses by means of correspondences, and thus by means of appearances in accordance with the confirmations of these by man.
4. This conjunction of temporal and eternal things is the Divine Providence. But these things will be set in clearer light by explanation.
 First: It is from the Divine Providence that man by death puts off what is natural and temporal, and puts on what is spiritual and eternal. Natural and temporal things are the outermost and ultimate things into which man first enters; and this he does at birth, to the end that he may afterwards be introduced into interior and higher things; for the outermost and ultimate things are containants; and these are in the natural world. This is the reason why no angel or spirit was created such immediately, but all were born first as men and so introduced into higher things. Hence they have outermost and ultimate things which in themselves are fixed and stabilised, and within and by them interior things can be held in their series.
 Man first puts on the grosser substances of nature, of which his body is constituted; but these he puts off by death, retaining the purer substances of nature which are nearest to spiritual things, and these then become his containants. Moreover, in outermost or ultimate things are simultaneously all interior or higher things, as was duly shown before. Therefore, every operation of the Lord is from first things and last things simultaneously, and thus in fullness. Since, however, the outermost and ultimate things of nature cannot receive the spiritual and eternal things for which the human mind was formed, as they are in themselves, and yet man was born to become spiritual and live forever, therefore man puts them off and retains only the interior natural things which are suitable and in harmony with spiritual and celestial things, and which serve them as containants. This is effected by the rejection of temporal and natural ultimates, which is the death of the body.
 Second: The Lord by His Divine Providence conjoins Himself to natural things by means of spiritual things, and to temporal things by means of eternal things, according to uses. Natural and temporal things are not only those which are proper to nature, but also those which are proper to men in the natural world. Both of these man puts off by death, and puts on the spiritual and eternal things which correspond to them. That he puts on these according to uses has been shown in many places in what has gone before. The natural things that are proper to nature relate in general to times and spaces, and in particular to the things that are seen on the earth. These man leaves behind by death and receives in their stead spiritual things that are similar in their external aspect or appearance but not in their internal aspect and essential nature. This has also been treated above.
 The temporal things that are proper to men in the natural world relate in general to dignities and wealth, and in particular to everyone’s necessities, which are food, clothing and habitation. These also are put off by death and left behind; and such things are assumed and received as are similar to them in external aspect or appearance, but not in their internal aspect and essential nature. All these derive their internal aspect and essential nature from the uses to which temporal things have been put in the world. Uses are the goods that are called the goods of charity. Hence it may be evident that the Lord by His Divine Providence conjoins to natural and temporal things spiritual and eternal things according to uses.
 Third: The Lord conjoins Himself to uses by means of correspondences, and thus by means of appearances in accordance with the confirmation of these by man. As this cannot but seem obscure to those who have not yet acquired a clear idea of what is meant by correspondence and appearance, it must be illustrated by example and so explained. All things in the Word are pure correspondences of spiritual and celestial things, and because they are correspondences they are also appearances; that is, all things of the Word are the Divine Goods of the Divine Love and the Divine Truths of the Divine Wisdom. These in themselves are unveiled, but they are clothed in the sense of the Letter of the Word. They therefore appear like a man in clothing which corresponds to the state of his love and wisdom. From this it is clear that if a man confirms in himself appearances it is as if he were to believe that clothes are the men; thus appearances become fallacies. It is otherwise if a man seeks for truths and sees them in the appearances.
 Now since all the uses, that is, the truths and goods of charity, that a man does to the neighbour may be done either according to appearances or according to the truths themselves in the Word: if he does them according to appearances confirmed in himself he is in fallacies; but if he does them according to truths he does them as he ought. From these considerations it may be evident what is meant when it is said that the Lord conjoins Himself to uses by means of correspondences, and thus by means of appearances according to the confirmation of these by man.
 Fourth: This conjunction of temporal and eternal things is the Divine Providence. In order that this may be set before the understanding in some degree of light, it may be illustrated by two examples, one of which concerns dignities and honours, and the other riches and wealth. Both of these in their external form are natural and temporal, but in their internal form are spiritual and eternal. Dignities with their honours are natural and temporal when man regards himself personally in them and not the commonwealth and uses. For in that case man cannot but think interiorly within himself that the state exists for the sake of him, and not he for the state. He is like a king who thinks that the kingdom and all the people in it exist for the sake of him and not he for the sake of the kingdom and its people.
 These same dignities, however, with their honours are spiritual and eternal when man regards himself personally as existing for the sake of the state and uses, and does not regard them as existing for the sake of himself. If a man does this he is then in the truth and essence of his dignity and honour. If, however, he does the former he is in the correspondence and appearance; and if he confirms these in himself he is in fallacies. He is thus in conjunction with the Lord only as those are who are in falsities and evils derived from these; for fallacies are falsities with which evils unite themselves. Such persons have indeed performed uses and good works, but from themselves and not from the Lord; and, therefore, they have put themselves in the place of the Lord.
 It is the same with regard to riches and wealth; for these also are natural and temporal as well as spiritual and eternal. Riches and wealth are natural and temporal with those who have regard to these only and to themselves in them, finding in them their whole pleasure and delight. These same things, however, are spiritual and eternal with those who have regard to good uses in them, finding in uses interior pleasure and delight. Moreover, with such persons the outward pleasure and delight become spiritual, and the temporal becomes eternal. Therefore, after death they are in heaven; and there they live in palaces, the useful furnishings of which are resplendent with gold and precious stones. These things, however, they regard only as externals resplendent and translucent from their internals which are uses; and from these uses they derive real pleasure and delight, which in themselves are the blessedness and joy of heaven. The opposite is the lot of those who have regarded riches and wealth for the sake of such things alone as they affected themselves, and thus for the sake of what is external and not at the same time for the sake of what is internal, thus according to appearances and not according to essential realities. When such men put off these appearances, as happens when they die, they put on the internals that pertain to them; and as these are not spiritual they must of necessity be infernal; for either one or other of these principles is in them, since the two cannot exist together. Consequently, in place of riches they have poverty and in place of wealth wretchedness.
 By uses are meant not only the necessaries of life which have relation to food, clothing and habitation for oneself and one’s dependents, but also the good of one’s country, of society, and of one’s fellow-citizens. Business is such a good when business is the supreme love and money is a mediate and subservient love, provided the business man shuns and turns his back on fraud and evil practices as sins. It is otherwise when money is the supreme love and business is a mediate and subservient love; for this is avarice, which is a source of evils. Concerning this see (Luke 12:15), and the parable relating to it, (Luke 12:16-21).