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Jesus Lives! - The Lord God Jesus Christ: Creator, Sustainer and Redeemer of Heaven and Earth

DP, sections 1 ff
DP, sections 27 ff
DP, sections 46 ff
DP, sections 70 ff
DP, sections 71 ff
DP, sections 100 ff
DP, sections 129 ff
DP, sections 135 ff
DP, sections 154 ff
DP, sections 175 ff
DP, sections 191 ff
DP, sections 214 ff
DP, sections 221 ff
DP, sections 234 ff
DP, sections 241 ff
DP, sections 249 ff
DP, sections 254 ff
DP, sections 262 ff
DP, sections 275 ff
DP, sections 279 ff
DP, sections 285 ff
DP, sections 308 ff
DP, sections 322 ff
DP, sections 331 ff
DP, sections 341 ff


Divine Providence  ·  Sections 129 ff previous  ·  next


DP 129. This law of the Divine Providence follows from the two preceding which are, that man should act from freedom according to reason (n. 71-99); and that he should do this of himself although from the Lord, thus as of himself (n. 100-128). Since being compelled is not acting from freedom according to reason, and is not from oneself but is from what is not freedom and is from another, therefore this law of the Divine Providence follows in order after the two former. Moreover, everyone knows that no one can be compelled to think what he is not willing to think, and to will what his thought forbids him to will, and thus to believe what he does not believe, and certainly what he is not willing to believe, and to love what he does not love, and certainly what he is not willing to love; for a man’s spirit or mind is in full liberty to think, will, believe and love. It is in this liberty by virtue of influx from the spiritual world which does not compel, for man’s spirit or mind is in that world, but not by virtue of influx from the natural world, which is not received unless the two act as one.

[2] A man may be compelled to say that he thinks and wills the things of religion, and that he believes and loves them; but if they are not, or do not become, matters of affection and consequently of his reason, he nevertheless does not think, will, believe and love them. A man may also be compelled to speak in favour of religion and to act according to it; but he cannot be compelled to think in favour of it from any faith in it, or to will the things of religion from any love of it. Moreover, in kingdoms where justice and judgment are guarded, everyone is restrained from speaking and acting against religion; but still no one can be compelled to think and will in favour of it. For it is within the liberty of everyone to think with hell and to will in its favour, and also to think and will in favour of heaven; but reason teaches what man’s nature is in the one case and in the other, and the nature of his abiding lot; and it is from reason that the will has liberty to choose and make its selection.

[3] From these considerations it can be seen that the external may not compel the internal; nevertheless, this is sometimes done, but that it is pernicious will be shown in the following order:

I. -No one is reformed by miracles and signs, because they compel.

II. -No one is reformed by visions and by conversations with the dead, because they compel.

III. -No one is reformed by threats and punishments, because they compel.

IV. -No one is reformed in states that are not of rationality and liberty.

V. -It is not contrary to rationality and liberty to compel oneself.

VI. -The external man must be reformed by means of the internal, and not the reverse.

DP 130. I. No ONE IS REFORMED BY MIRACLES AND SIGNS, BECAUSE THEY COMPEL. It was shown above that man has an internal and an external of thought, and that the Lord flows through the internal of thought with man into its external, and thus teaches and leads him; and also that it is of the Divine Providence of the Lord that man should act from freedom according to reason. All this would perish in man if miracles were wrought and man were driven by them to believe. That this is so may be rationally seen from the following considerations. It cannot be denied that miracles induce a belief and a strong persuasion that what is said and taught by him who performs the miracles is true, and that this at first so occupies the external of man’s thought as to hold it spell-bound. Man, however, is thereby deprived of his two faculties called rationality and liberty, and thus of his ability to act from freedom according to reason; and then the Lord cannot flow in through the internal into the external of his thought, except merely to leave the man to confirm from his rationality what has become an object of his faith because of the miracle.

[2] The state of man’s thought is such that from the internal of his thought he sees a thing in the external of his thought as in a kind of mirror; for, as was said above, a man is able to see his own thought, and this is only possible from a more interior thought. When he sees the thing as in a mirror, he can also turn it this way and that, and shape it until it appears to him to be a thing of beauty. If this is a truth it may be compared to a maiden or a youth, beautiful and living. If, however, the man cannot turn it this way and that and shape it, but can only believe it from the persuasion induced by a miracle, it may be compared, if it is then a truth, to a maiden or a youth carved from stone or wood, in which there is no life. It may also be compared to an object that is constantly before the sight and, being alone seen, hides from view everything that is on either side of it and behind it. Again, it may be compared to a continual sound in the ear that takes away the perception of harmony arising from many sounds. Such blindness and deafness are induced on the human mind by miracles. It is the same with everything that is confirmed which is not seen with some degree of rationality before being confirmed.

DP 131. From these considerations it may be evident that faith induced by miracles is not faith but persuasion; for there is nothing rational in it, still less anything spiritual, as it is only external without an internal. It is the same with all that a man does from this persuasive faith, whether he acknowledges God, or worships Him at home or at church, or performs good deeds. When a miracle alone leads a man to the acknowledgment of God, to worship, and to piety, he acts from the natural man and not from the spiritual. For a miracle infuses faith by an external and not by an internal way, thus from the world and not from heaven. Now the Lord does not enter by any other way with man than the internal way, which is by the Word, by doctrine and by preaching from it; and as miracles close up this way, at this day no miracles are wrought.

DP 132. That this is the nature of miracles may be clearly evident from those wrought before the people of Judah and Israel. Although these had seen so many miracles in the land of Egypt, and afterwards at the Red Sea, and others in the desert, and especially on Mount Sinai when the Law was promulgated, yet after the space of a month when Moses tarried upon that mountain, they made for themselves a golden calf and acknowledged it as Jehovah who had led them out of the land of Egypt (Exod. 32:4, 5, 6). Again, the nature of miracles may be evident from those wrought afterwards in the land of Canaan; and yet the people so many times departed from the worship enjoined upon them. It is equally manifest from the miracles that the Lord wrought before them when He was in the world; and yet they crucified Him.

[2] Miracles were wrought among the people of Judah and Israel because they were a wholly external people; and they were led into the land of Canaan solely in order that they might represent the Church and its internal things by means of the external things of worship, a wicked man equally with a good man being able to represent. For external things are the rituals, all of which with them signified spiritual and celestial things. Aaron indeed, although he made the golden calf and commanded the worship of it (Exod. 32:2, 3, 4, 5, 35), could nevertheless represent the Lord and His work of salvation. Since they could not be led by means of the internal things of worship to represent these things, therefore they were led, even driven and compelled by miracles to do so.

[3] They could not be led to such representation because they did not acknowledge the Lord, although the whole Word which was among them treats of Him alone; and he who does not acknowledge the Lord cannot receive any internal of worship; but after the Lord manifested Himself and was received and acknowledged in the Churches as the eternal God, miracles ceased.

DP 133. The effect, however, of miracles on the good and on the wicked is different. The good do not desire miracles, but they believe those recorded in the Word; and if they hear anything concerning a miracle they give it their attention only as an argument of no great weight that confirms their faith; for their thoughts are derived from the Word, consequently from the Lord, and not from the miracle. It is otherwise with the wicked. They may indeed he driven and compelled to a faith by miracle, and even to worship and to piety, but only for a short time. For their evils are shut in, and the lusts of their evils and the delights springing from these lusts continually act upon their external of worship and piety; and in order that their evils may emerge from their confinement and break forth, they reflect upon the miracle and at length call it an amusing artifice or a natural phenomenon, and so return to their evils. Now he who after worship returns to his evils profanes the truth and good of worship; and the lot after death of those who commit profanation is the worst of all. These are they who are meant by the Lord’s words in (Matt. 12:43, 44, 45), whose last state is worse than their first. Moreover, if miracles were to be wrought with those who do not believe from the miracles in the Word, they would be performed continually, and in view of all such persons. From these considerations it may be evident why miracles are not wrought at this day.

DP 134. II. NO ONE IS REFORMED BY VISIONS AND BY CONVERSATIONS WITH THE DEAD, BECAUSE THEY COMPEL. Visions are of two kinds, Divine and diabolical. Divine visions are produced by means of representatives in heaven, and diabolical visions by means of magic in hell. There are also fantastic visions, which are the delusions of a distracted mind. Divine visions, which as has been said, are produced by representatives in heaven, are such as the prophets had, who were not in the body but in the spirit when they were in them; for visions cannot appear to anyone in a state of bodily wakefulness. When, therefore, they appeared to the prophets it is said also that they were then in the spirit, as is evident from the following passages:

Ezekiel says:

The spirit took me up, and brought me in a vision (of God), in the Spirit of God, into Chaldea, to them of the captivity. So the vision that I had seen went up from me. (Ezek. 11:1, 24).


That the spirit lifted him up between the earth and the heaven, and brought him in the visions of God to Jerusalem, (Ezek. 8:3, 4).

In like manner he was in a vision of God or in the spirit when he saw four living creatures, which were cherubim, (Ezekiel 1:1; 10:1). As also when

he saw the new temple and the new earth, and the angel measuring them, (Ezekiel 40:40-48).

He says:

That he was then in the visions of God, (Ezek. 40:2, 26).


That he was in the spirit, (Ezekiel 43:5).

[2] Zechariah was in a similar state,

When he saw a man riding among the myrtle trees. (Zech. 1:8).

When he saw the four horns (Zech. 1:18);

and a man in whose hand was a measuring line, (Zech. 2:1-3).

When he saw a candlestick and two olive trees, (Zech. 4:1).

When he saw a flying roll and an ephah, (Zech. 5:1-6).

When he saw four chariots coming out from between four (A.V. two) mountains and horses, (Zech. 6:1).

Daniel was in a similar state,

When he saw four beasts coming up from the sea. (Dan. 7:1).

And when he saw the combat between the ram and the he-goat, (Dan. 8:1).

That he saw these things in a vision of his spirit is stated, (Dan. 7:1, 2, 7, 13; 8:2; 10:1, 7, 8). And that the angel Gabriel was seen by him in a vision, (Dan. 9:21).

[3] John also was in a vision of the spirit when he saw the things which he has described in the Revelation:

As when he saw seven candlesticks and in the midst of them the Son of Man. (Rev. 1:12-16).

When he saw a throne in heaven, and One sitting on the throne, and four animals which were cherubim round about it, (Rev. 4:1).

When he saw the book of life taken by the Lamb, (Rev. 5:1).

When he saw horses going out from the book, (Rev. 6:1).

When he saw seven angels with trumpets, (Rev. 8:1).

When he saw the bottomless pit opened, and locusts going out of it, (Rev. 9:1).

When he saw the dragon, and his combat with Michael, (Rev. 12:1).

When he saw two beasts, one rising up out of the sea, and the other out of the earth, (Rev. 13:1).

When he saw a woman sitting upon a scarlet coloured beast, (Rev. 17:1).

And Babylon destroyed, (Rev. 18:1).

When he saw a white horse and Him that sat upon it, (Rev. 19:1).

When he saw a new heaven and a new earth, and the Holy Jerusalem coming down out of heaven, (Rev. 21:1).

And when he saw the river of the water of life, (Rev. 22:1).

It is stated that he saw these things in a vision of the spirit, (Rev. 1:10; 4:2; 5:1; 6:1; 21:1, 2).

[4] Such were the visions that appeared from heaven, before the sight of their spirit and not before the sight of their body. Such visions do not appear at the present day; for if they did they would not be understood, because they are produced by means of representatives, the particulars of which signify internal things of the Church and spiritual truths of heaven. It is also foretold by Daniel (Daniel 9:24), that these visions would cease when the Lord came into the world. However, infernal visions have sometimes appeared, induced by fanatical and visionary spirits who, from the madness which possessed them, called themselves the Holy Spirit. But these spirits have now been gathered together by the Lord and cast into a hell separate from the hells of others. From these things it is clear that no one can be reformed by any other visions than those which are recorded in the Word. There are also fantastic visions, but these are mere illusions of a distracted mind.

DP 134a. That no one is reformed by conversations with the dead is evident from the words of the Lord concerning the rich man In hell and Lazarus in Abraham’s bosom; for the rich man said:

I pray thee father Abraham, that thou wouldest send Lazarus (A.V. him) to my father’s house: For I have five brethren; that he may testify unto them, lest they also come into this place of torment. Abraham saith unto him: They have Moses and the Prophets; let them hear them. And he said: Nay, father Abraham: but if one went unto them from the dead, they will repent. And he said unto him: If they hear not Moses and the Prophets, neither will they be persuaded though one rose from the dead. (Luke 16:27-31).

Conversation with the dead would have the same effect as miracles, about which something has just been said above, namely, that a man might indeed be persuaded and driven to worship for a short time. But as this deprives him of rationality and at the same time shuts in his evils, as was said above, this spell or internal restraint is loosed, and the evils that have been shut in break out with blasphemy and profanation. This happens, however, only when spirits induce upon the mind some religious dogma; and this is never done by any good spirit, still less by any angel of heaven.

DP 135. Nevertheless, conversation with spirits, though rarely with angels of heaven, is allowed and has been granted to many for ages back. When it is granted the spirits speak with man in his native tongue, but only a few words. Those, however, who speak by permission of the Lord say nothing whatever that takes away the freedom of the reason, nor do they teach; for the Lord alone teaches man, though mediately by means of the Word when he is in a state of enlightenment; but about this something will be said in following numbers. It has been granted me by my own experience to know that this is the case. I have had conversation with spirits and angels for many years now; and no spirit has dared, nor has any angel wished, to tell me anything, still less to instruct me, about what is in the Word, or about any matter of doctrine from the Word. I have been taught by the Lord alone, who was revealed to me, and who has since constantly appeared before my eyes as the Sun in which He is; and He appears in the same way as He appears to the angels, and He has enlightened me.

DP 136. III. NO ONE IS REFORMED BY THREATS AND PUNISHMENTS, BECAUSE THEY COMPEL. It is well known that the external cannot compel the internal, but that the internal can compel the external. It is also well known that the internal is so averse to compulsion by the external that it turns itself away. Further, it is known that external delights allure the internal to consent and love; and it may also be known that there can be a forced internal and a free internal. However, although all these points are known they still require to be illustrated; for there are many things which on being heard are at once perceived to be as stated because they are true and therefore receive affirmation; but if they are not at the same time confirmed by reasons they may be weakened by fallacious" arguments, and at length denied. The points, therefore, which have just been stated as well known must be taken up again and rationally established.

[2] First: The external cannot compel the internal, but the internal can compel the external. Who can be compelled to believe and to love? One can no more be compelled to believe than to think that a thing is so when he thinks that it is not so; and one can no more be compelled to love than to will what he does not will, for belief belongs to the thought and love to the will. There is, however, an internal which may be restrained by the external from speaking ill against the laws of the kingdom, the moralities of life and the sanctities of the Church. To this extent the internal may be compelled by threats and punishments; and it, moreover, is compelled and ought to be. This internal, however, is not the human internal that is properly so-called: it is an internal that man has in common with beasts; and beasts can be compelled. The human internal has its seat above this animal internal; and it is the human internal that is here meant, and it cannot be compelled.

[3] Second: The internal is so averse to compulsion by the external that it turns itself away. This is because the internal wishes to be in freedom, and loves freedom, for freedom belongs to the love or life of man, as was shown above. Therefore, when freedom feels itself being compelled it withdraws as it were within itself and turns itself away, and regards compulsion as its enemy; for the love that constitutes the life of man is irritated and causes the man to think that in this matter he is not master of himself, and consequently that his life is not his own. Man’s internal is such from the law of the Divine Providence of the Lord that man should act from freedom according to reason.

[4] From this it is clear that it is harmful to compel men to Divine worship by threats and punishments. There are, however, some who suffer themselves to be forced to religion and some who do not. Many Roman Catholic people suffer themselves to be so compelled, but this takes place with those in whose worship there is nothing internal, but all is external. Many of the English nation do not suffer themselves to be compelled, and as a consequence of this there is an internal in their worship, and what there is in the external is from the internal. Their interiors with respect to religion appear in spiritual light like bright clouds; but the interiors of the foyer with respect to religion appear in the light of heaven like dark clouds. Both of these appearances are to be seen in the spiritual world, and anyone who wishes will see them when he comes into that world after death. Moreover, worship that is compelled shuts in evils, which then lie concealed like fire in wood under ashes, which continues to increase and spread till it breaks out into flames; while worship that is not compelled but spontaneous does not shut in evils, and these are then like fires that blaze up at once and are burnt out. From these things it is clear that the internal is so averse to compulsion that it turns itself away. The internal can compel the external because the internal is like a master and the external like a servant.

[5] Third: External delights allure the internal to consent and also to love. Delights are of two kinds, delights of the understanding and delights of the will; those of the understanding are also the delights of wisdom, and those of the will are also the delights of love; for wisdom is of the understanding and love is of the will. Now since the delights of the body and its senses, which are external delights, act as one with the internal delights which are of the understanding and the will, it follows that as the internal is so averse to compulsion by the external as to turn itself away from it, so the internal looks with such favour on what is delightful in the external as to turn itself to it. Thus arises consent on the part of the understanding and love on the part of the will.

[6] In the spiritual world all infants are led by the Lord into angelic wisdom, and by that into heavenly love by means of delights and pleasures; first, by means of beautiful things in their homes and pleasant things in gardens; then by means of representatives of spiritual things which affect the interiors of their minds with pleasure; and finally by means of truths of wisdom and so by goods of love. They are thus led continually by means of delights in due order; first by the delights of the love of the understanding and of its wisdom; and finally by the delights of the will’s love, which becomes their life’s love; and in subordination to this are held all other things that have entered their minds by means of delights.

[7] This takes place because everything of the understanding and of the will must be formed by means of the external before it is formed by means of the internal. For everything of the understanding and of the will is formed first by means of what enters through the senses of the body, especially through the sight and hearing. When, however, the first understanding and the first will have been formed, the internal of thought regards them as the external things of its thought, and either conjoins itself with them or separates itself from them, conjoining itself with them if they are delightful to it and separating itself from them if they are not.

[8] It should be clearly understood, however, that the internal of the understanding does not conjoin itself with the internal of the will, but that the internal of the will conjoins itself with the internal of the understanding, and causes the conjunction to be reciprocal. But this is brought about by the internal of the will, and not at all by the internal of the understanding. Hence it is that man cannot be reformed by faith alone, but by the love of the will which forms a faith for itself.

[9] Fourth: There can be a forced internal and a free internal. A forced internal is possible with those whose worship is only external and in no degree internal; for their internal consists in thinking and willing that to which their external is compelled. Such are those who worship men, living and dead, and hence who worship idols, and those who are in faith based on miracles. In those there is no internal but what is at the same time external. In those, however, whose worship is internal a forced internal is possible. This may be either an internal forced by fear or an internal compelled by love. Those have an internal forced by fear who worship from fear of the torment of hell and its fire. This internal, however, is not the internal of thought before treated of, but the external of thought, and is here called an internal because it is of thought. The internal of thought before treated of cannot be forced by any fear; but it can be compelled by love and by the fear of losing love. The fear of God in the true sense is none other than this. To be compelled by love and by the fear of losing it is to compel oneself; and it will be seen later that compelling oneself is not contrary to liberty and rationality.

DP 137. From this may be evident the nature of worship that is forced and of worship that is not forced. Worship that is forced is corporeal, lifeless, vague and gloomy: corporeal because it is of the body and not of the mind, lifeless because there is no life in it, vague because there is no understanding in it, and gloomy because there is no heavenly delight in it. On the other hand, worship that is not forced, when it is genuine, is spiritual, living, clear and joyful: spiritual because there is spirit from the Lord in it, living because there is life from the Lord in it, clear because there is wisdom from the Lord in it, and joyful because there is heaven from the Lord in it.

DP 138. IV. NO ONE IS REFORMED IN STATES THAT ARE NOT OF RATIONALITY AND LIBERTY. It was shown above that nothing is appropriated to man except what he does from freedom according to reason. This is because freedom belongs to the will and reason to the understanding; and when man acts from freedom according to reason he acts from the will by means of his understanding; and that which is done when these two are united is appropriated to him. Now since the Lord wills that man should be reformed and regenerated in order that he may have eternal life or the life of heaven; and since no one can be reformed and regenerated unless good is appropriated to his will so as to be as it were his own, and truth is appropriated to his understanding also to be as his own; and since nothing can be appropriated to anyone except what is done from freedom of the will according to reason, it follows that no one is reformed in states that are not of liberty and rationality. There are many such states, but in general they may be referred to the following: states of fear, misfortune, mental disorder (animus), bodily disease, ignorance and blindness of the understanding. Something shall be said of each state in particular.

DP 139. No one is reformed in a state of fear, because fear takes away freedom and reason, or liberty and rationality; for love opens the interiors of the mind but fear closes them; and when they are closed man has but few thoughts, and then only those which present themselves to his mind (animus) or to his senses. Such is the nature of all fears that invade the mind (animus).

[2] It was shown above that man has an internal and an external of thought. Fear can in no wise invade the internal of thought, this being always in freedom because it is his life’s love; but it can invade the external of thought, and when it does this the internal of thought is closed; and when this is closed man can no longer act from freedom according to his reason, and therefore cannot be reformed.

[3] The fear that invades the external of thought and closes the internal is chiefly a fear of the loss of honour or of gain; but the fear of civil punishments and of external ecclesiastical punishments does not close the internal of thought, because the laws relating to these only prescribe penalties for those who speak and act contrary to the civil interests of the state and the spiritual interests of the Church, but not for those who think in opposition to them.

[4] The fear of infernal punishments does indeed invade the external of thought, but only for some moments, hours or days: it is soon restored to the freedom it has from the internal of thought which properly belongs to its spirit and its life’s love, and which is called the thought of the heart.

[5] However, fear of the loss of honour and gain invades the external of man’s thought; and when it does this it closes the internal of thought from above against influx from heaven and makes it impossible for man to be reformed. This is because the life’s love of every man from his birth is the love of self and of the world; and the love of self makes one with the love of honour, and the love of the world makes one with the love of gain. Therefore, when a man is in possession of honour or wealth, from fear of losing them he strengthens in himself the means that serve to promote his honour and gain. These means are both civil and ecclesiastical, and in each case they pertain to rule. He who is not yet in possession of honour or wealth acts in similar fashion if he aspires to win them, but he does so from a fear of the loss of reputation on account of them.

[6] It is said that this fear invades the external of thought and closes the internal from above against influx from heaven; and this is said to be closed when it completely makes one with the external, for then it is not in its self, but in the external.

[7] Since, however, the loves of self and of the world are infernal loves and the source of all evils, it is clear what the nature of the internal of thought is in itself in those in whom these loves are their life’s loves, or in whom they reign, namely, that it is full of the lusts of evils of every kind.

[8] This is not known to those who, from fear of the loss of dignity and wealth, under strong persuasion hold to the religiosity which they profess, especially as it is a form of religion which involves the worship of themselves as deities and also as rulers (plutones) in hell. These can burn, as it were, with zeal for the salvation of souls, and yet they do so from infernal fire. Since this fear especially takes away rationality itself and liberty itself which are heavenly in their origin, it is clearly a hindrance to the possibility of man’s reformation.

DP 140. No one is reformed in a state of misfortune, if only then he thinks of God and implores His aid, because this is a state of compulsion; therefore as soon as he comes into a state of freedom he goes back into his former state in which he had thought little or nothing concerning God. It is otherwise with those who had, while in a free state, feared God before misfortune. By fearing God is meant fearing to offend Him, and to offend Him is to sin. This is not a matter of fear but of love; for anyone who loves another fears to do him wrong, and the more he loves the greater is his fear. Without this fear love is insipid and superficial, a matter of thought only and not of the will. By states of misfortune are meant states of despair arising from peril, as in battles, duels, shipwrecks, falls, fires, imminent or unexpected loss of wealth, also of office and consequently of honour, and other similar dangers. To think of God only when in these states is not from God but from self; for the mind is then as it were imprisoned in the body; thus not in liberty and therefore not in rationality; and without these no reformation is possible.

DP 141. No one is reformed in a state of mental disorder (animus), because disease of the mind takes away rationality, and consequently freedom of acting according to reason. For the mind (mens) is sick and unsound, and a sound mind is rational but not a sick one. Such disorders of the mind are melancholy, spurious and false remorse of conscience, hallucinations of various kinds, grief of mind (animus) arising from misfortunes, anxieties and mental anguish from a vitiated condition of the body. These are sometimes regarded as temptations, but they are not; for genuine temptations have as their objects spiritual things, and in them the mind is wise; but these states have as their objects natural things, and in them the mind is unsound.

DP 142. No one is reformed in a state bodily disease, because the reason is then not in a free state, for the state of the mind depends upon the state of the body. When the body is sick the mind also is sick, because of its separation from the world-if for no other reason. For a mind removed from the world thinks indeed concerning God, but not from God, for it does not have freedom of reason. Man has freedom of reason from this circumstance, that he is in the midst between heaven and the world and can think from heaven and the world, also from heaven about the world and from the world about heaven. When, therefore, a man is in sickness, and is thinking about death and the state of his soul after death, he is not then in the world but is withdrawn in spirit; and when in this state only, no one can be reformed; but he may be strengthened by this experience if he was reformed before he fell sick.

[2] It is the same with those who renounce the world and all business in it and give themselves up solely to thoughts about God, heaven and salvation; but on this subject more will be said elsewhere. If these persons, therefore, were not reformed before their sickness, they become after it such as they were before the sickness. Hence it is vain to think that any can repent or receive any faith during sickness, for there is no action in that repentance and no charity in that faith; thus it is all lip-service and nothing of the heart in both cases.

DP 143. No one is reformed in a state of ignorance, because all reformation is effected by means of truths and a life according to them. Therefore, those who have no knowledge of truths cannot be reformed; but if they desire truths from an affection for them they are reformed in the spiritual world after death.

DP 144. Neither can anyone be reformed in a state of blindness of the understanding. These also have no knowledge of truths, and consequently of life; for the understanding must teach truths and the will must do them; and when the will does what the understanding teaches its life is fashioned according to truths. But when the understanding is blinded the will is also closed up, and from freedom according to its reason it does only the evil that is confirmed in the understanding, which is falsity. Moreover, the understanding is blinded not only by ignorance but also by religion that teaches blind faith; and also by false doctrine. For as truths open the understanding so falsities close it; they close it from above but open it from below, and the understanding, open only below, cannot see truths but can merely confirm whatever it wills, especially falsity. The understanding is also blinded by the lusts of evil. As long as the will is in these it moves the understanding to confirm them; and so far as the lusts of evil are confirmed it is impossible for the will to be in the affections of good and to see truths from them, and thus to be reformed.

[2] For example, when one is in the lust of adultery his will, which is in the delight of his love, moves his understanding to confirm it, saying, "What is adultery? Is there anything wicked in it? Is there not the same thing between husband and wife? Cannot children be born from adultery just as from marriage? Cannot a woman admit more than one without harm? What has the spiritual to do with this?" So thinks the understanding which is then the courtesan of the will, and so stupid has it become from debauchery with the will that it cannot see that marriage love is spiritual, heavenly love itself, an image of the love of the Lord and of the Church from which it is derived; and thus that it is in itself holy, that it is chastity itself, purity and innocence; and that it makes men to be forms of love, since consorts can love each other mutually from inmost things and thus form themselves into loves; and that adultery destroys this form and with it the image of the Lord; and what is horrible, that the adulterer mingles his life with the husband’s life in his wife, for a man’s life is in the seed.

[3] As this is profane, therefore hell is called adultery, and heaven on the other hand is called marriage. Moreover, the love of adultery communicates with the lowest hell but true marriage love communicates with the inmost heaven; and the organs of generation in both sexes also correspond to societies of the inmost heaven. These things have been recorded that it may be known how blinded the understanding is when the will is in the lust of evil; and that no one can be reformed in a state of blindness of the understanding.

DP 145. V. IT IS NOT CONTRARY TO RATIONALITY AND LIBERTY TO COMPEL ONESELF. It was shown in what has gone before that man has an internal and an external of thought; that these are distinct like what is prior and what is posterior or like what is higher and what is lower; and that, because they are so distinct, they can act separately and also conjointly. They act separately when from the external of his thought a man speaks and acts otherwise than as he thinks and wills interiorly; and they act conjointly when he speaks and acts as he interiorly thinks and wills. The latter is, generally the case with the sincere, but the former with the Insincere.

[2] Now since the internal and the external of the mind are in this way distinct, the internal can even fight with the external and by combat force it to compliance. Combat takes place when a man thinks that evils are sins and therefore resolves to desist from them; for when he desists a door is opened, and when it is opened the lusts of evil which occupied the internal of his thought are cast out by the Lord and affections of good are implanted in their place. This is done in the internal of thought. But as the delights of the lusts of evil which invest the external of thought cannot be cast out at the same time, a combat takes place between the internal and the external of thought. The internal wishes to cast out these delights because they are delights of evil and not in accord with the affections of good in which the internal now is; and instead of the delights of evil it wishes to introduce delights of good that are in accord. The delights of good are what are called goods of charity. From this opposition arises a combat, and if it increases in severity it is called temptation.

[3] Now since a man is a man by virtue of the internal of his thought, this being the spirit of man itself, it is evident that a man compels himself when he forces the external of his thought to compliance, that is, to receive the delights of his affections, which are the goods of charity. It is evident that this is not contrary to rationality and liberty but is in accordance with them; for rationality causes the combat and liberty carries it on. Liberty itself with rationality also has its seat in the internal man and from that in the external.

[4] When, therefore, the internal conquers, as happens when the internal has reduced the external to obedient compliance, then liberty itself and rationality itself are given to man by the Lord; for man is then withdrawn by the Lord from infernal freedom, which in itself is slavery, and is brought into heavenly freedom, which in itself is freedom itself and he is granted association with angels. That those are slaves who are in sins, and that the Lord makes those free who receive truth from Him through the Word, He teaches in (John 8:31-36).

DP 146. This may be illustrated by the example of a man who has taken delight in fraud and secret theft, but who now sees and interiorly acknowledges that these are sins, and therefore desires to desist from them. When he desists there arises a combat of the internal man with the external. The internal man has an affection for sincerity, but the external man still has delight in fraud; and as this delight is the direct opposite of the delight of sincerity it does not give way unless it is compelled; and it cannot be compelled unless by combat. When victory has been won the external man is introduced into the delight of the love of what is sincere, which is charity; and afterwards delight in fraud gradually loses its pleasure for him. It is the same with all other sins, as with adultery and whoredom, revenge and hatred, blasphemy and lying. But the hardest of all combats is with the love of rule from the love of self. He who subdues this easily subdues all other evil loves, for this is their head.

DP 147. It will also be briefly stated how the Lord casts out lusts of evil, which beset the internal man from birth, and how He bestows in their place affections of good when a man as of himself removes evils as sins. It was shown before that man has a natural mind, a spiritual mind and a celestial mind; and that he is in the natural mind alone, as long as he is in the lusts of evil and their delight; and that during this time the spiritual mind is closed. But as soon as he, after self-examination, acknowledges evils to be sins against God because they are contrary to Divine laws, and therefore desires to desist from them, the Lord opens the spiritual mind, and enters into the natural mind through affections for truth and good; and He also enters into the rational, and from it disposes in order the things that are contrary to order below it in the natural. This appears to man as a combat and, with those who have indulged much in the delights of evil, as temptation; for there arises grief in the mind (animus) when the order of its thoughts is inverted. Now since the combat is against the things that are in the man himself and that he feels as his own, and no one can fight against himself unless from an interior self and from freedom there, it follows that the internal man then fights against the external, and fights from freedom and forces the external to obedience. This, then, is compelling oneself; and it is clear that this is not contrary to liberty and rationality, but is in accordance with them.

DP 148. Moreover, every man wishes to be free, and to remove not freedom but slavery from himself. Every boy who is under a master wishes to be his own master, and so to be free. It is the same with every man-servant under his master and with every maid under her mistress. Every maiden wishes to leave her father’s house and to marry, in order that she may act freely in a home of her own; and every youth who desires to engage in work, or take part in business, or perform the duties of any office, while he serves under others wishes to be released in order that he may be his own master. All those who serve of their own accord by reason of their liberty compel themselves; and when they compel themselves they act from freedom according to reason, but from an interior freedom, from which exterior freedom is looked upon as servitude. This has been stated in order to prove that it is not contrary to rationality and liberty to compel oneself

DP 149. One reason why man does not in like manner desire to come out of spiritual servitude into spiritual liberty is, that he does not know what spiritual slavery is and what spiritual freedom is; he does not possess the truths that teach this; and without truths spiritual slavery is believed to be freedom, and spiritual freedom to be slavery. Another reason is that the religion of the Christian world has closed up the understanding, and faith alone has sealed it; for both of these have placed around themselves like an iron curtain the dogma that theological matters are transcendent and cannot therefore be reached by any exercise of rationality, and that they are for the blind, not for those that see. In this way the truths have been hidden that teach what spiritual liberty is. A third reason is that few examine themselves and see their sins; and he who does not see his sins and desist from them is in the freedom of sin, which is infernal freedom, in itself slavery; and from this viewpoint to see heavenly freedom, which is freedom itself is like seeing day in a fog, or like seeing what comes from the sun above when under a black cloud. Hence it is that it is not known what heavenly freedom is, and that the difference between it and infernal freedom is like the difference between the living and the dead.

DP 150. VI. THE EXTERNAL MAN MUST BE REFORMED BY MEANS OF THE INTERNAL, AND NOT THE REVERSE. By the internal and the external man is meant the same as by the internal and the external of thought, which have frequently been treated of before. The reason why the external is reformed by means of the internal is that the internal flows into the external, and not the reverse. It is known in the learned world that there is influx of the spiritual into the natural, and not the reverse; and it is known in the Church that the internal man must first be purified and renewed, and thereby the external. This is known because the Lord teaches it and reason declares it. The Lord teaches it in these words:

Woe unto you, hypocrites! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess. Thou blind Pharisee, cleanse first that which is witin the cup and the platter, that the outside of them may be clean also. (Matt. 23:25, 26).

[2] That reason declares it is shown in many passages in the treatise THE DIVINE LOVE AND WISDOM. For what the Lord teaches He grants to men to perceive rationally, and this in two ways; in one, man sees in himself that a thing is so, as soon as he hears it; and in the other, he understands it by means of reasons. His seeing in himself is in his internal man, and his understanding by means of reasons is in the external man. Everyone sees it within himself when he hears that the internal man must first be purified and the external by means of it. But he who does not receive a general idea of this by influx from heaven may be led astray when he consults the external of his thought. From this alone no one sees otherwise than that the external works of charity and piety, apart from the internal, are saving: It is the same in other things; as that sight and hearing flow into thought, and smell and taste into perception; thus the external into the internal, when nevertheless the contrary is the case. The appearance that what is seen and heard flow into the thought is a fallacy; for it is the understanding that sees in the eye and hears in the ear, and not the reverse. So it is in everything else.

DP 151. At this point something will now be said on how the internal man is reformed and how the external man is reformed-by means of it. The internal man is not reformed merely by knowing, understanding and being wise, and consequently merely by thinking; but by willing what knowledge, understanding and wisdom teach. When a man knows, understands and has wisdom to see that there is a heaven and a hell, and that all evil is from hell and all good is from heaven; and if he then does not will evil because it is from hell, but wills good because it is from heaven, he is in the first stage of reformation, and is at the threshold out of hell into heaven. When he progresses further, and wills to desist from evils he is in the second stage of reformation, and is now outside hell but not yet in heaven, which he sees above him. A man must have such an internal in order that he may be reformed; but he is not reformed unless the external as well as the internal is reformed. The external is reformed by means of the internal when the external desists from the evils which the internal does not will because they are infernal, and still more when the external for this reason shuns them and fights against them. Thus willing is the part of the internal and doing of the external. For unless a man does that which he wills there is within him the failure to will which eventually becomes want of will.

[2] From these few considerations it can be seen how the external man is reformed by means of the internal. This also is what is meant by the Lord’s words to Peter:

Jesus said: If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me. (Simon) Peter saith unto Him: Lord, not my feet only, but also my hands and my head. Jesus saith to him: He that is washed needeth not save to wash his feet, but is clean every whit. (John 13:8, 9, 10).

By washing is meant spiritual washing, which is purification from evils; by washing the head and hands is meant purifying the internal man; and by washing the feet is meant purifying the external man. That the external man must be purified when the internal has been purified is meant by this, "He that is washed, needeth not save to wash his feet." That all purification from evils is from the Lord is meant by this, "If I wash thee not, thou hast no part with me." It has been shown in many places in the ARCANA CAELESTIA that washing among the Jews represented purification from evils, and that this is signified in the Word by washing; and that by washing the feet is signified the purification of the natural or external man.

DP 152. Since man has an internal and an external, and both must be reformed in order that the man may be reformed, and since no one can be reformed unless he examines himself sees and acknowledges his evils, and afterwards desists from them, it follows that not only the external but also the internal must be examined. If the external alone is examined, a man sees only what he has actually done, as that he has not committed murder, adultery, theft, and has not borne false witness; and so on. Thus he examines the evils of his body, and not the evils of his spirit; and yet the evils of the spirit must be examined in order that anyone may be reformed. For after death man lives a spirit, and all the evils that are in the spirit remain; and the spirit is examined only by man attending to his thoughts, especially to his intentions, for these are thoughts from the will. In the will evils are in their origin and in their root, that is, in their lusts and in their delights; and unless these are seen and acknowledged the man is still in evils, although in externals he has not committed them. That to think from intention is to will and to do is clear from the Lord’s words:

Whosoever looketh on the wife of another (A.V. a woman) to lust after her committeth (A.V. hath committed) adultery with her already in his heart. (Matt. 5:28).

Such is the examination of the internal man, from which the essential examination of the external man is effected.

DP 153. I have often wondered that although the whole Christian world acknowledges that evils must be shunned as sins, and that otherwise they are not remitted, and unless they are remitted there is no salvation, yet scarcely one in a thousand understands this. Inquiry was made about this in the spiritual world, and it was found to be so. Everyone in the Christian world acknowledges it, from the exhortations read before those who come to the Holy Supper, for it is openly declared in these; and yet when they are asked whether they understand this, they answer that they do not, and that they have never understood it. The reason is that they have not given it any thought, most of them thinking only about faith and about salvation by faith alone. I have also wondered that faith alone has so closed the eyes that when those who have confirmed themselves in it are reading the Word they see nothing that is said there about love, charity and works. It is as though they had smeared over all things in the Word with faith, as one smears over a piece of writing with red paint so that nothing underneath it appears; and if anything does appear, it is absorbed by faith and declared to be faith.

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