LEVITICUS 7
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Leviticus Chapter 7

Summary of the Spiritual Sense

    The general summary of this interesting chapter, expressed also in its closing verses, is as follows:
  1. Laws of Divine Order concerning the worship of the Lord from the truth of faith, vers. 1-7.
  2. The general law that man can only appropriate good as if it were his own, vers. 8-10.
  3. Laws concerning the worship of the Lord from freedom, vers. 11-36.
  4. The general law that man cannot appropriate good and truth as his own absolutely, vers. 22-27.
  5. The appropriation of spiritual and celestial good, when vivified by the Lord and acknowledged to be from Him, by man's exercise of his own powers from the Lord, vers. 28-36.
  6. A general summary of the laws of Divine Order concerning worship, vers. 37-38.

The Contents of each Verse

  1. And this is the law of the guilt offering: it is most holy.
  1. And the laws of Divine Order with reference to the worship of the Lord from the truth of faith, and at the same time with reference to deliverance from exterior evils, are as follow: such worship, and such deliverance, are derived from the inmost state as to good. [more]
  1. In the place where they kill the burnt offering shall they kill the guilt offering: and the blood thereof shall he sprinkle upon the altar round about.
  1. And therefore preparation for such worship and deliverance is similar to, and is grounded in, the worship of the Lord from pure love; and by this worship and deliverance, the conjunction of truth with good is effected in every mode and degree. [more]
  1. And he shall offer of it all the fat thereof; the fat tail, and the fat that covers the inwards,
  1. Also all the good thereof is to be wholly ascribed to the Lord, even all exterior and external natural good. [more]
  1. And the two kidneys, and the fat that is on them, which is by the loins, and the long lobe upon the liver, with the kidneys, shall he take away:
  1. Also the discrimination or purification of truth, and the good thereof conducing to the heavenly marriage, with interior natural good promoting the discrimination of truth, are to be separated from selfish good. [more]
  1. And the priest shall burn them upon the altar for an offering made by fire to the Lord: it is a guilt offering.
  1. And all these are to be ascribed to the Lord, and are to be devoted to Him in worship from pure love. And this is the worship by which there is deliverance from exterior evil. [more]
  1. Every male among the priests shall eat thereof: it shall be eaten in a holy place: it is most holy.
  1. And all those who are in the truth of faith derived from the good of charity shall appropriate good in this worship; it shall be appropriated in a holy state; and it is the outward expression of inmost good. [more]
  1. As is the sin offering, so is the guilt offering: there is one law for them: the priest that makes atonement therewith, he shall have it.
  1. And this worship is one with the worship of the Lord from the good of faith, and thence man's deliverance from interior evil; there is the same law for deliverance from evil in general; and those who are in good by which there is deliverance from evil and reconciliation with the Lord, shall appropriate the good of this worship. [more]
  1. And the priest that offers any man's burnt offering, even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt offering which he has offered.
  1. Besides which, the good from which any one devotes himself wholly to the Lord shall be appropriated by the worshiper, only as to the external thereof, or only as if it were from himself. [more]
  1. And every meal offering that is baked in the oven, and all that is dressed in the frying pan, and or the baking pan, shall be the priest's that offers it.
  1. And this appropriation shall include every intermediate state of worship in its three degrees in the natural man, where preparation is made by conjoining truth with good. [more]
  1. And every meal offering, mingled with oil, or dry, shall all the sons of Aaron have, one as well as another.
  1. And every sincere act of worship, whether it be consciously from affection, or from the truth of faith apparently without affection, really appertains to man only externally, or as if from himself. [more]
  1. And this is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which one shall offer to the Lord.
  1. Also these are the laws of Divine Order in relation to the worship of the Lord from freedom in every individual case: [more]
  1. If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then shall he offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled with oil, of fine flour soaked.
  1. If such worship is a token of thanksgiving, then it shall be from truth conjoined with celestial good uncontaminated with falsity, and in its three degrees, such truth being derived from good, and leading thereto. [more]
  1. With cakes of leavened bread he shall offer his oblation with the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving.
  1. And he who worships the Lord freely from gratitude, grounded in celestial love, also humbly acknowledges that of himself he is only evil, and has been purified by the Lord; through temptation. [more]
  1. And of it he shall offer one out of each oblation for an heave offering to the Lord; it shall be the priest's that sprinkles the blood of the peace offerings.
  1. And therefore this heavenly state is confessed to be received from the Lord, the result being that pure heavenly good is appropriated by him, who conjoins truth with good in such worship. [more]
  1. And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten on the day of his oblation; he shall not leave any of it until the morning.
  1. Also this particular good of worship from gratitude is appropriated only under the state of celestial love, and such good is not  appropriated if contaminated with selfish love on the one hand, or separated from the new state of regeneration on the other. [more]
  1. But if the sacrifice of his oblation be a vow, or a freewill offering, it shall be eaten on the day that he offers his sacrifice: and on the morrow that which remains of it shall be eaten:
  1. But in free worship proceeding from spiritual love or charity, under a desire that the Lord may provide, or from natural love, good shall be appropriated in each case, not only under that particular state, but, through remains, perpetually afterwards. [more]
  1. But that which remains of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day shall be burnt with fire.
  1. Nevertheless, in the process of judgement, when the state of good is completed, all merely selfish good shall be dissipated, through victory in the last temptations. [more]
  1. And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offerings be eaten on the third day, it shall not be accepted, neither shall it be imputed to him that offers it: it shall be an abomination, and the soul that eats of it shall bear his iniquity.
  1. But if, in this process, selfish good is appropriated, it does not give conjunction with the Lord, nor can it be imputed as heavenly good; for it is utterly opposed to such good; and he who is in it must remain in his evil state conjoining it with falsity. [more]
  1. And the flesh that touches any unclean thing shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt with fire. And as for the flesh, every one that is clean shall eat thereof:
  1. Neither is it lawful to appropriate any good that is contaminated with evil: it must be purified by temptations, or be overcome by heavenly love; but good may be appropriated by every one who is purified from evil. [more]
  1. But the soul that eats of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, that pertain to the Lord, having his uncleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off from his people.
  1. And he who appropriates good in the worship of the Lord from freedom externally, when yet he has not done the work of repentance by purifying himself internally, is thereby separated entirely from truth and good. [more]
  1. And when any one shall touch any unclean thing, the uncleanness of man, or an unclean beast, or any unclean abomination, and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings, which pertain to the Lord, that soul shall be cut off from his people.
  1. Also he who allows himself, by contact with evil to be contaminated, either internally, interiorly, or externally, and yet presumes to appropriate good from the Lord by external worship only, is thereby separated from good and truth. [more]
  1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,
  1. Further, there is revelation from the Lord by Divine Truth giving perception, [more]
  1. Speak to the children of Israel, saying, You shall eat no fat, of ox, or sheep, or goat.
  1. And instruction to the man of the Spiritual Church, who thence perceives that it is impossible for him to appropriate celestial good either in the natural or spiritual state, or in the state of truth leading to good, from himself. [more]
  1. And the fat of that which dies of itself, and the fat of that which is torn of beasts, may be used for any other service: but you shall in no wise eat of it.
  1. Also affections in which there is no spiritual life, or those which are injured by lusts, may be made useful as means, but they cannot be appropriated by the spiritual man. [more]
  1. For whoever eats the fat of the beast, of which men offer an offering made by fire to the Lord, even the soul that eats it shall be cut off from his people.
  1. And if any one presumes to claim as his own absolutely the good which may be appropriated from the Lord in worship, he is thereby separated from the church. [more]
  1. And you shall eat no manner of blood, whether it be of bird or of beast, in any of your dwellings.
  1. Moreover, it is unlawful for the spiritual man to claim as his own absolutely the good that he receives from the Lord whether it may be intellectual or voluntary; [more]
  1. Whosoever it be that eats any blood, that soul shall be cut off from his people.
  1. And whoever presumes to do this hypocritically in external worship, is on that account separated from the church. [more]
  1. And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying,
  1. And there is revelation from the Lord by Divine Truth giving perception, [more]
  1. Speak to the children of Israel, saying, He that offers the sacrifice of his peace offerings to the Lord shall bring his oblation to the Lord out of the sacrifice of his peace offerings:
  1. And instruction to the man of the Spiritual Church, that in states of the worship of the Lord from freedom, he shall be inwardly in pure good, and shall act from that good as from himself. [more]
  1. His own hands shall bring the offerings of the Lord by fire; the fat with the breast shall he bring, that the breast may be waved for a wave offering before the Lord.
  1. By the exercise of his own will and understanding shall he inwardly devote himself to the Lord from pure love; and from celestial in spiritual good shall he worship, in order that spiritual good may be vivified from the Lord, and may thus become perfect. [more]
  1. And the priest shall burn the fat upon the altar: but the breast shall be Aaron's and his sons'.
  1. And by celestial good shall he be immediately conjoined with the Lord in worship; but by spiritual good in the celestial degree of his conscious life, he realizes the holy principle of charity. [more]
  1. And the right thigh shall you give to the priest for an heave offering out of the sacrifices of your peace offerings.
  1. But inmost celestial good and truth conjoined in the heavenly marriage must be ascribed solely to the Lord in worship from a state of freedom, that good may be received, and rendered active, externally in uses. [more]
  1. He among the sons of Aaron, that offers the blood of the peace offerings, and the fat, shall have the right thigh for a portion.
  1. And inmost celestial truth from good, by which the conjunction of truth with good, and of good with truth is effected in worship which, in externals, is relatively imperfect, is that which appropriates immediately the life of good from the Lord. [more]
  1. For the wave breast and the heave thigh have I taken of the children of Israel out of the sacrifices of their peace offerings, and have given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons as a due for ever from the children of Israel.
  1. For spiritual good and celestial good, which are the sources of all activity, must be ascribed by the spiritual man entirely to the Lord in worship from freedom and joy on account of deliverance from evil; and yet are to be appropriated by the celestial and spiritual man, as if they were his own, to eternity, and are derived from the exercise of his innate powers. [more]
  1. This is the anointing portion of Aaron, and the anointing portion of his sons, out of the offerings of the Lord made by fire, in the day when he presented them to minister to the Lord in the priest's office;
  1. And thus conjunction with the Divine life is effected in the inmost celestial degree, in the will and understanding there, when the Lord is worshiped sincerely although imperfectly, from love; and when man thus inmostly acknowledges that all life is from the Lord in the genuine worship of Him. [more]
  1. Which the Lord commanded to be given them of the children of Israel, in the day that he anointed them. It is a due for ever throughout their generations.
  1. And every man of the Spiritual Church by influx from the Lord, is enabled to acknowledge that inmost life is from Him in worship by conjunction with Him. And thus must the spiritual man perpetually acknowledge the Lord in every state of the regenerate life in heaven. [more]
  1. This is the law of the burnt offering, of the meal offering, and of the sin offering, and of the guilt offering, and of the consecration, and of the sacrifice of peace offerings;
  1. These are the laws of Divine Order in relation to the acknowledgement of the Lord, and His worship in all its degrees as to the reception of celestial and spiritual good, and as to deliverance from evil internally and externally as to conjunction with the Lord, and as to the worship of the Lord from freedom in relatively imperfect states. [more]
  1. Which the Lord commanded Moses in mount  Sinai, in the day that he commanded the children of Israel to offer their oblations to the Lord, in the wilderness of Sinai.
  1. And these, indeed, commence in a state of instruction in Divine Truth from a principle of good, when the Divine Life flows down even to ultimates in the obscurity of such a state of instruction. [more]

References and Notes

  1.  This is evident, because the guilt offering signifies worship from the truth of faith, 9156; it also signifies deliverance from exterior evils, 3400; and its being most holy signifies that such worship and such deliverance are derived from the inmost state as to good, 10129.

    [Back to 1]

  2.  Killing the animal offered denotes preparation for such worship, 10024; in the place where they kill the burnt offering denotes that such worship is similar to the worship of the Lord from pure love, and is grounded therein, 10053, 2625; and sprinkling the blood on the altar round about denotes that by this worship and deliverance the conjunction of truth with good is effected in every mode and degree, 10047.

    [Back to 2]

  3.  Offering all the fat denotes that all the good of such worship Is to be ascribed to the Lord, 10033; the fat tail denotes exterior natural good, 10071; and the fat that covers the inwards denotes external natural good, 10029, 10030, 9632.

    [Back to 3]

  4.  The two kidneys and the fat that is upon them denote the discrimination or purification of truth, and the good thereof, 10032, 10074; the loins denote the conjunction of truth with good, 3915; the long lobe upon the liver, with the kidneys, denote interior natural good promoting the discrimination of truth, 10031; and these being taken away or separated denote separation from selfish good, and consequently consecration to the service of the Lord, as is evident.

    [Back to 4]

  5.  The priest burning these things upon the altar for an offering made by fire to the Lord, denotes that all these varieties of good are to be ascribed to the Lord, and are to be devoted to Him in worship from pure love, 10052, 10055; and it being a guilt offering denotes that this is the worship by which there is deliverance from exterior evil, 3400, 10042, III.

    [Back to 5]

  6.  Every male among the priests eating thereof denotes that all those who are in the truth of faith derived from the good of charity shall appropriate good in this worship, 725, 9946, 2187; a holy place denotes a holy state, 2625; and it being most holy denotes that it is the outward expression of inmost good,. 10129.

    [Back to 6]

  7.  As is the sin offering so is the guilt offering, denotes that this worship is one with the worship of the Lord from the good of faith, and thence man's deliverance from interior evil, 9156, 10042; there being one law for them denotes the same law for deliverance from evil in general, as is evident; and the priest that makes atonement having it, denotes that those who are in good by which there is deliverance from evil and reconciliation with the Lord, shall appropriate the good of this worship, 9946, 10042, II., 2187.

    [Back to 7]

  8.  By the priest is denoted the good from which any one worships, 9946; by the burnt offering is denoted full devotion to the Lord, 8680; by the skin is denoted what is external, 3540; and by the priest having the skin is denoted appropriation only as to the external, or as if from himself, 2187.

    [Back to 8]

  9.  The meal offering denotes a state of spiritual worship when the burnt offering signifies a state of celestial worship, and therefore it here denotes an intermediate state, 2177; the oven, the frying-pan and the baking-pan denote diversities of good in the natural or external man, 7356; and baking denotes preparation, which takes place in the natural man by conjoining truth with good there, the fine flour denoting truth and the heat good, 8496, 2177, 934.

    [Back to 9]

  10.  The meal offering denotes a sincere act of worship celestial or spiritual, 4581, 2177; mingled with oil denotes consciously from good, or affection, 2177; dry denotes apparently without affection, 8185; and all the sons of Aaron having it denotes appropriation only externally, since sons denote truths which are relatively external, and Aaron, as the high priest, denotes good which is relatively internal, 9946.

    [Back to 10]

  11.  By the law of the sacrifice of the peace offering are denoted the laws of Divine Order in relation to the worship of the Lord from freedom in every individual case, 3880, 10097, 10137.

    [Back to 11]

  12.  Here unleavened cakes mingled with oil, unleavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes mingled with oil of fine flour soaked, denote truth conjoined with good, uncontaminated with falsity, in its three degrees, such truth being derived from good and leading thereto, 3880, 7906, 9993, 9994, 9995.

    [Back to 12]

  13.  Cakes of leavened bread offered with the sacrifice of peace offerings for thanksgiving denote that he who worships the Lord freely from gratitude grounded in celestial love acknowledges that of himself he is only evil, and has been purified by the Lord through temptations, 7906.

    [Back to 13]

  14.  Offering one out of each oblation for a heave offering denotes good received from the Lord alone, 10097; and it being the priest's denotes that pure heavenly good is appropriated by him who conjoins truth with good in such worship, 9946, 10047.

    [Back to 14]

  15.  The flesh being eaten on the day of the oblation denotes that this particular good of worship from gratitude is appropriated only under that preparatory state, 2187, 487; and not leaving any of it until the morning, denotes non-appropriation if contaminated with selfish love on the one hand, or separated from the new state of regeneration on the other, 10114-17, 7860, 8480-3.

    [Back to 15]

  16.  This is evident from the signification of a vow as denoting worship from spiritual love, and a willingness that the Lord may provide, 3880; of a free-will offering as denoting worship from freedom, 10097; of eating as denoting appropriation, 2187; of day as denoting state, 487; and of the morrow as denoting perpetually afterwards, 3998, 8788.

    [Back to 16]

  17.  That which remains of the sacrifice until the third day being burnt with fire, denotes that in the process of Judgement, when the state of good is completed, all merely selfish good shall be dissipated, 8480-3, 10115, 900.

    [Back to 17]

  18.  In this verse the flesh of the sacrifice, which properly denotes heavenly good, denotes the opposite, that is, selfish good, because of abuse, 10114; not being accepted evidently denotes non-conjunction with the Lord; and its not being imputed denotes that it cannot be imputed as heavenly good, 9713, 1813; while by its being an abomination, and by iniquity being borne, are denoted that it is utterly opposed to such good, and that he who is in it must remain in his evil state conjoining it with falsity, 6052, 7454, 9937.

    [Back to 18]

  19.  This is true because by the flesh here is evidently denoted good, 10114; by touching is denoted contact spiritually, 4404, 10199; by an unclean thing is denoted an evil affection, 10130; by not being eaten is denoted non-appropriation, 2187; by being burnt with fire is denoted purification by temptations, or overcoming by the power of heavenly love, 7861, 934; and by every one who is clean eating thereof is denoted that good may be appropriated by every one who is purified from evil, 2187, 10130.

    [Back to 19]

  20.  The soul that eats of the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings having his uncleanness upon him being cut off from his people, denotes that he who appropriates good in the worship of the Lord from freedom externally, when yet he has not done the work of repentance by purifying himself internally, is thereby separated entirely from truth and good, 2187, 3880, 10097, 10130, 5302, 3294-5.

    [Back to 20]

  21.  Touching an unclean thing denotes contact with evil, 4404, 10199 10130; man, beast, and abomination denote internally, interiorly, and externally respectively, 7523, 6052; to eat the flesh of the sacrifice, in such a case, is to presume to appropriate good externally, 2187; and to be cut off from his people is to be separated from truth and good, 5302, 3294-5.

    [Back to 21]

  22.  This is evident, because by Jehovah is denoted the Divine Being as to His love, 2001; by speaking is denoted influx, 2951; by Moses is represented Divine Truth, or the Word, 7010, 6752; and by saying is denoted perception, 1791, 1822.

    [Back to 22]

  23.  Speaking to the children of Israel and saying, denotes instruction to the man of the Spiritual Church who thence perceives, 7063, 3654, 1791; to eat denotes to appropriate, 2187; fat denotes celestial good, 10033; and ox, and sheep, and goat denote respectively natural and spiritual good, and the state of truth leading to good, 5913, 6126, 4169.

    [Back to 23]

  24.  By the fat of that which dies of itself is denoted affection in which there is no spiritual life, and by the fat of what was torn is denoted injury by lusts, 4171; by being used for any other service is denoted that such affections may be made useful as means, 2541, 5148; and by their not being eaten is denoted that they cannot be appropriated, 2187.

    [Back to 24]

  25.  The soul that eats the fat of the beast of which men offer an offering made by fire to the Lord, being cut off from his people, denotes that if any one presumes to claim as his own absolutely the good which may be appropriated from the Lord, he is separated from the church, 2187, 10055, 5302, 3294-5.

    [Back to 25]

  26.  Eating no manner of blood, whether it be of bird or of beast, in any of your dwellings, denotes that it is unlawful for the spiritual man to claim as his own absolutely the good, intellectual or voluntary, which he receives from the Lord, 2187, 10033, 40, 46.

    [Back to 26]

  27.  Whatever soul eating blood being cut off from his people, signifies that whoever presumes to appropriate good hypocritically in external worship is on that account separated from the church, 10033, 2187, 5302, 3294-5.

    [Back to 27]

  28.  This is evident, because by Jehovah is denoted the Divine Being as to His love, 2001; by speaking is denoted influx, 2951; by Moses is represented Divine Truth, or the Word, 7010, 6752; and by saying is denoted perception, 1791, 1822.

    [Back to 28]

  29.  This is true, because speaking to the children of Israel saying, denotes instruction to the men of the Spiritual Church, giving perception, 7063, 3654, 1791; peace offerings denote the worship of the Lord from freedom, 10097; bringing his oblation to the Lord denotes that he is inwardly in pure good, 2001; and out of the sacrifice of his peace offerings denotes acting from that good as from himself, 10097.

    [Back to 29]

  30.  His own hands bringing the offering of the Lord made by fire, denotes that by the exercise of his own will and understanding he shall inwardly devote himself to the Lord from pure love, 8066, 10062, 10055; the fat with the breast denotes that he shall worship from celestial in spiritual good, 10033, 10087; and the waving denotes vivification from the Lord, 10083, 10093.

    [Back to 30]

  31.  The priest burning the fat upon the altar denotes conjunction with the Lord by celestial good in worship, 10033, 10052; and the breast being for Aaron and his sons denotes conjunction with the Lord by charity, 10087.

    [Back to 31]

  32.  The right thigh being given to the priest for a heave offering out of the sacrifices of the peace offerings, denotes that inmost celestial good and truth conjoined in the heavenly marriage must be ascribed solely to the Lord in worship from a state of freedom, that good may be received and rendered active externally in uses, 10092-3, 10097.

    [Back to 32]

  33.  He among the sons of Aaron that offers the blood of the peace offerings and the fat having the right thigh for a portion, denotes that inmost celestial truth from good by which the conjunction of truth with good and of good with truth is effected in worship which in externals is relatively imperfect, is that which appropriates immediately the life of good from the Lord, 9946, 10047, 10033, 10092-3, 2187.

    [Back to 33]

  34.  The wave breast and the heave thigh denote spiritual and celestial good, 10087, 10092-3; taken from the children of Israel out of the sacrifices of peace offerings, denotes that they are from the Lord as the sources of all activity, 10087, 10092-3; out of their sacrifices of peace offerings denotes when worship is from freedom, 10097; given to Aaron and his sons denotes that they must be ascribed to the Lord who is Divine Good and Divine Truth, 10277, 9946, 10093; and the Lord giving them to Aaron the priest and his sons as a due, or a statute, for ever, denotes that they are appropriated by the celestial and spiritual man as if they were their own to eternity, and are derived from the exercise of his innate powers, 9946, 7884, 7931, 1712.

    [Back to 34]

  35.  This is true because anointing portions denote what gives conjunction with the Divine life, 9954; Aaron and his sons denote Divine Good and Divine Truth, and thus the inmost celestial degree as to the will and understanding, 9946; the offerings of the Lord made by fire denote the worship of the Lord sincerely, though, imperfectly, from love, 10055; and the day when he presented them, to minister to the Lord in the priest's office, denotes when man thus inwardly acknowledges that all life is from the Lord in the genuine worship of Him, 10097.

    [Back to 35]

  36.  Which the Lord commanded to be given them of the children of Israel in the day that he anointed them, denotes that every man of the Spiritual Church, by influx from the Lord, is enabled to acknowledge that inmost life is from Him in worship by conjunction with Him, 5486, 10227, 3654, 10097; and a due, or statute, for ever throughout your generations, denotes that thus must the spiritual man perpetually acknowledge the Lord in every state of the regenerate life in heaven, 7884, 7931, 9845, 1712.

    [Back to 36]

  37.  The law of the burnt offering, of the meal offering, of the sin offering, of the guilt offering, of the consecration, and of the peace offerings, denotes the laws of Divine Order in relation to the acknowledgement of the Lord, and His worship in all its degrees as-to the reception of celestial and spiritual good, as to deliverance from evil internally and externally, as to conjunction with the Lord, and as to the worship of the Lord from freedom in relatively imperfect states. This appears from the explanation of the whole series as here given with the various proofs.

    [Back to 37]

  38.  By the Lord commanding Moses in Mount Sinai is denoted commencement in a state of instruction in Divine Truth from a principle of good, 7010, 6752, 8753, 5486; by the Lord commanding Moses is denoted influx from the Lord even to ultimates, 5486; and by offering oblations to the Lord in the wilderness of Sinai is denoted the worship of the Lord in the obscurity of such a state of instruction, 349, 922, 8753.

    [Back to 38]

Discussion

Having now completed the proofs of each verse in this chapter, we pursue our plan by such comments as may be useful in illustrating the various laws of Divine Order concerning worship, which come successively before us. Every one, surely, in the present day is willing to believe that the External of the universe is governed by laws, and to admit that were it not so, or did man remain ignorant of those laws, confusion would be the result in the universe, or man would appear out of joint with every other created thing or being. Hence, then, we find that man is endowed with the capacity to understand natural law, and to provide for his material comfort and happiness by bringing himself into harmony with it.

But this being the case, we are led to reflect that, certainly also, the Internal of the universe, which must be the cause of the External, is also governed by laws; and that it is equally necessary that man should become acquainted with them, and live according to them. For if, by obedience to natural law, the natural man is so greatly benefited, how much more will he be so by obedience to spiritual law as well! Nay, further, does it not appear reasonable that without the knowledge and practice of spiritual law, obedience to natural law merely, valuable as it is, does not accomplish all that is desirable for man? Need we wonder, then, at the Lord's words in the Gospel, where He counsels His disciples to seek FIRST the kingdom of God, and His righteousness?

But how "are the laws which regulate the Internal of the universe to be discovered and understood? Not by any merely natural process of investigation, but by revelation. The natural man cannot discover and verify spiritual laws because they are above his capacity. And the spiritual man, although he can understand spiritual laws when revealed, cannot, by himself, discover them, because they have their origin in the Lord who is Infinite; and since no one can comprehend the Infinite, but only what proceeds from the Infinite, when that proceeding is successively and adequately accommodated (John 1:18), therefore revelation has been given which is the Word, and indeed has always been given (John 1:1). And in the Word, on this account, are contained the laws of spiritual life made manifest through the correspondences, by means of which spiritual truth is conveyed to man, and could not be conveyed in any other way (Matt 13:34; Ps 78:2). Let us then reverently and lovingly consider the laws set before us in our chapter.

Now the first law governing the worship of those who are in the truth of faith is, that such worship proceeds from the inmost state as to good. The worshiper, however, is not aware, consciously, of the operation of this law, for he does not even know what his inmost state as to good is, nor does he perceive that the Lord is operating upon him through it. But it is there nevertheless, 1555. The next law is that preparation for this worship is similar to preparation for worship from pure love. What is this preparation? It is the denial of self, the shunning of evils as sins, and the acknowledgement of the Lord. The old life must be rejected, its delights must be relinquished, and a determination to act according to the truth must be exercised, this last necessarily involving the acknowledgement of the Lord and of responsibility to Him. And these result in worship from the truth of faith, of which every one may be conscious when he acts according to the truth, although only on the principle or rule that the truth must be obeyed because the Lord has so commanded. But the third law in this case is, that truth must be conjoined with good, or faith with love, according to the state. And this, as far as the worshiper is concerned, is effected by a life of obedience; but as far as the Lord's operation is concerned by an arrangement of truth under the state of good at this stage realized. For by his obedience the worshiper confirms the conjunction, and by the Lord's secret operation an elevation of state is produced in preparation for a higher degree of worship. The fourth Jaw, which is described in verses 3-5, is that all the good of this worship, denoted by the fat, and all the truth thereof denoted by the kidneys, both exterior and interior, shall be ascribed to the Lord and devoted to His service; and then it follows that all who are in truth derived from good will appropriate good, that is (according to a law afterwards explained), only externally, or as if from self, because the flesh in relation to the fat and the blood denotes what is external. The fifth law is that the worship of the Lord from the truth of faith and from the good of faith are identical, since they both relate to the removal of evil, arid both classes of worshipers can appropriate good according to the law, which is described in verses 8-10, and is shown to be applicable to appropriation under different states of worship, namely, that it is only external, or as if good belonged to man as his own. And this general law is here stated evidently to show that even the angels of the superior heavens, as well as those of the ultimate heaven, cannot appropriate life or love as their own absolutely, the reason being that the Lord only has self-existent life. Thus is man every moment dependent on the source of life; and all evil arises from the abuse of his free determination under the delusion that life really appertains to himself. But this sixth law, which may be called the general law of appropriation, requires a little further consideration. In the sixth verse it is said, concerning the flesh of the sacrifice, "every male among the priests shall eat thereof," meaning, spiritually, that all in truth derived from good not as yet realized will appropriate good; but in the eighth verse it is also said the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt offering, meaning that good will appropriate its own ultimate truth, as well as that good is only appropriated by men, even in celestial worship, externally; and another aspect of this correspondential statement is, that when man is fully in good internally, he will not only appropriate good externally, which is specifically represented by eating the fleshy but ultimate truth also, denoted by having the skin. Now all these three aspects of the internal sense of this Mosaic law are legitimate interpretation, and cohere. For fullness of appropriation involves three things: first, the consciousness that we are recipients of good and truth continually; secondly, that the internal appropriates what is external; and thirdly, that the more we are filled with love to the Lord and the neighbour internally, the more full and complete, ultimately, will be our external enjoyment of life. And now, further, we may see how the spiritual sense of verses 9-10 show the working of this law in fullness with spiritual and natural men as well as with the celestial. Observe that "the sons of Aaron " here include those who are in truth from good natural as well as spiritual, and that this is the reason why it is said, "one as well as another"; also that when we state the spiritual sense in ordinary language, as is necessary in expositions, we cannot express more than one aspect of the truth involved when writing a series.

But proceeding, we have now to make some remarks on the internal sense as far as verse 21. The various laws concerning the peace offerings, as the references show, denote the laws of Divine Order in relation to man's worship of the Lord from freedom in every individual case. Simply to read over this description in the literal sense is enough to prove that the directions here given must involve more than appears on the surface. Who can tell, for example, from the literal sense, why the flesh of the sacrifice of confession, or thanksgiving, was only to be eaten on the day when offered, when yet that of the votive and retributory offerings was permitted to be eaten on the second day as well? But the internal sense shows us why. There is only one thing which really constitutes true worship in any degree of man's life, and that is, the love of the object of worship for his own sake, and not for any less interior motive or reason. To love and worship the Lord for what He is, is a great deal more important than to love and worship Him on account of the benefits He has conferred, or is likely to confer upon us. Hence, then, worship merely from gratitude is decidedly inferior to worship from genuine love in any degree of our life. Of course it is natural that we should be grateful for blessing's bestowed upon us by anybody, and it has been said that ingratitude is a crime so shameful that no one could be found who would acknowledge himself guilty of it. But still, does not the Lord want us to love Him for His own Name's sake, rather than because His kindness constrains us? To love His kindness is good, but to love Himself, and thus imitate His kindness is better. Hence, then, we see why an offering of thanksgiving is inferior to an offering from love, and why the former, distinguished from the latter, must be involved in the latter to constitute real thanksgiving; or, in the words of the literal sense, why we must eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of thanksgiving only on the day when it is offered, that is, spiritually, our gratitude must not be apart from our genuine love to the Lord. Now this is really the sum and substance of the internal sense of vers. 11-15. But besides the sacrifices of thanksgiving, the peace offerings included vows; and consulting 3880, we find numerous passages of scripture quoted to show that they represented spiritual worship as distinguished from celestial, or worship from charity to the neighbour as distinguished from love to the Lord. And it therefore follows that the free-will offerings named along with the vows, denote natural worship from freedom. Now to worship the Lord from freedom is to worship Him from love; and therefore it is said concerning all the peace offerings that they were "not so much for purification and sanctification as the rest, but that they might eat together in the holy place, and testify joy of heart from Divine worship" (10114). Evidently, then, they represented worship from the freedom of love after victory in temptation, and also in the fully regenerated state; and the appropriation of good, under such conditions, was denoted by eating of the sacrifices; and that such appropriation was and is continual, is denoted by eating on the "morrow," or on the second day, what was left on the first. For to eternity man will require to be nourished with heavenly good, and during regeneration he is nourished by the appropriation of good successively in states of peace and rest after temptations. And, moreover, whereas in the celestial state, described in ver. 12, he has reached the third heaven, beyond which he cannot go, and which is the third day, or final new state, 10114, he can only appropriate good in that day, on the other hand, the spiritual man, in his state of appropriation, or in his states of the realization of good, is looking forward to the "morrow" of the celestial state, and the natural man to the "morrow" of the spiritual and celestial states, from all which we see another reason why the law of appropriation is differently described in the fifteenth and sixteenth verses. There are, however, other laws regarding this appropriation of good which now require attention.

The first of these is expressed in the seventeenth verse, and it is that, in the process of Judgement, all merely selfish good will be dissipated. This the references given clearly show; and this is applicable, of course, to those who are in genuine good. But the next verse gives another law which concerns the wicked. Selfish good may be appropriated in the process of Judgement, and when it is, it not only causes separation from the Lord and the heavenly life, but the confirmation and perpetual continuance of evil; for the Last Judgement with every one in particular follows immediately after his departure from the natural world, and then, since a man is no longer in liberty of choice between good, and evil (H.H. 480) and will not admit of instruction, it follows that he must remain in evil to eternity; and, we may add, it is better for himself that it should be so, since it provides for his entire separation from good and truth which, to such persons, only cause torment. And the third law, which is contained in the two following verses, is that the appropriation of good must be preceded by purification from evil, while the fourth, which ends the series, declares that merely outward righteousness combined with inward impurity, which is hypocrisy and profanation, also necessarily causes separation from good and truth. And finally all these laws show that good is not appropriated or realized by man during states of instruction or during states of conflict, but after instruction and after conflict, when the Lord is truly worshiped with freedom and joy.

And now follow two more important subdivisions of the general subject of the appropriation of good in worship from freedom, the former teaching that no one can appropriate good or truth as his own absolutely, and the latter that, nevertheless, man must act in the matter as if all depended upon himself, at the same time acknowledging that all the power of doing so is from the Lord, the chapter concluding with a general summary of the laws of worship in all cases from the earliest state of man's instruction in truths with a view to their implantation in good. And all this will be found in harmony with the teaching concerning worship from freedom in chapter the third; but this account is more particular, for it is said not only that it is impossible for man to appropriate any good or truth from himself, but also that affections merely natural, and therefore without spiritual life, and the affections that have been injured by lusts, may be useful as means, but cannot be appropriated. Hence we see therefore the proper use of the selfish and perverted life of man before regeneration, and how the Divine Providence may lead man by that life into the higher life. And indeed, were this not the case, it is difficult to see how we are brought out of the old and corrupted life into that which is heavenly. Moreover, it is according to all human experience that the natural life precedes and the spiritual life follows; and, although it may seem like a paradox, yet it is equally true that regeneration also precedes and purification follows. Thus man in the world lives a chequered life, and hardly knows, notwithstanding his determination to do right, whether his real bias is for heaven or hell. However, let him "trust in the Lord and do good, for so shall he dwell in the land; and verily he shall be fed." And a word may now be said, therefore, on the other aspect of the subject as contained in the internal sense of verses 29-36. The law is that a man cannot be saved except by worshiping the Lord entirely as from his own power. His own hands bringing the offering denotes action from his own power; the fat with the breast denotes celestial good inwardly in spiritual good; and waving denotes vivification from the Lord. We do not, however, see or feel these interior operations in ourselves, only perhaps experiencing an obscure satisfaction in doing our duty, this being the effect of the Lord's hidden work. And still further in this connection, how elevating is the spiritual teaching of the thirty-first verse! For it shows that the appropriation of good, or the realization of charity, denoted by the breast, depends upon the sincere acknowledgement that inmost good, signified by the fat, is entirely from the Lord, and must be consecrated to his service in the life of charity. And it follows that this truth is emphasized in the following verse, the heaving of the right thigh denoting that acknowledgement, and also conjunction with the Lord, while by Aaron and his sons having it, is denoted appropriation and the consequent life of uses; for good is not really appropriated unless it is expressed in words and deeds. But now two remarks made in giving the internal sense of verses 33 and 34

may require explanation. It is said in the former that worship from inmost celestial truth is, in externals, relatively imperfect, and this Is true of all external worship as compared with what is internal, and is illustrated by what is said in 9946 at the end, and in 10047 in these words: "As the Lord glorified His Human, so also He regenerates man: for the Lord with man flows in with good through the soul which is by an internal way, and with truth through hearing and sight, that is by an external way, and so far as man desists from evils, so far the Lord conjoins good with truth, and the good becomes the good of charity towards the neighbour and of love to God, and the truth becomes the truth of faith." Also in verse 34 it is said that spiritual good and celestial good "are derived from the exercise of man's innate powers." By "innate powers " are meant powers received from the Lord, as, for example, the power to use the new will and understanding, 1555, and power to act as from himself, 1712. Thus, too, it is said in verse 35, "The Lord is worshiped sincerely, though imperfectly, from love"; and in verse 36 that man is enabled to acknowledge that inmost life is from the Lord." And in short, the anointing portion of Aaron and his sons is nothing else, with regard to man generally, than the power given to him to acknowledge that his highest good is from the Lord, by conjunction with Him, and thence by the appropriation of that good.

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