Spiritual Meaning of GENESIS 10:3-4
AC 1152. Verses 3, 4. And the sons of Gomer: Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah. And the sons of Javan: Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. By the "sons of Gomer" also are signified those who had external worship, but derived from that which existed in the nation Comer. "Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah" were so many nations, among whom there was such worship, by whom also are signified so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Gomer; by the "sons of Javan" are signified still others with whom external worship existed, derived from the worship which was in the nation Javan; "Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim" were so many nations among whom such worship existed, by whom also are signified so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Javan.
AC 1153. And the sons of Gomer. That by these also are signified those who had external worship, but derived from that which existed in the nation Gomer, follows from what has been said and shown before concerning the signification of "sons;" and also from the fact that Gomer was one of those nations that had external worship corresponding to internal. There were seven nations named in the foregoing verse which were in such worship. Here again are seven nations, which are called "sons of Gomer" and "of Javan;" but what were the specific differences between them cannot be told, because here they are merely mentioned. But in the Prophets, where this and that worship of the church is treated of specifically, the differences can be distinguished. In general, all the diversities of external, as also of internal worship, are according to the adoration of the Lord in the worship; and the adoration is according to the love to the Lord and the love toward the neighbor. For the Lord is present in love, and thereby in worship; the differences of worship therefore among the nations here mentioned were of this nature.
 That it may be still more clearly explained how the case is in respect to diversities of worship, and how it was with the various nations in the Ancient Church, let it be known that all true worship consists in adoration of the Lord, adoration of the Lord in humiliation, and humiliation in one‘s acknowledgment that in himself there is nothing living, and nothing good, but that all within him is dead, yea, cadaverous; and in the acknowledgment that everything living and everything good is from the Lord. The more a man acknowledges these things, not with the mouth, but with the heart, the more he is in humiliation; and consequently the more he is in adoration, that is, in true worship, and the more he is in love and charity, and the more in happiness. The one is in the other, so conjoined as to be inseparable. From this it is evident what and of what nature are these differences of worship.
 Those here spoken of, and are called "sons of Gomer and Javan," are those who also had external worship corresponding to internal, but somewhat more remote than those who were named in the preceding verse. For this reason they are called "sons." The generations successively descending, or the derivations, here proceed from the interior toward the exterior. The more sensuous a man becomes, the more exterior his worship becomes, and consequently the more remote from the true worship of the Lord; for it partakes more of the world, of the body, and of the earth, and less of the spirit; and therefore it is more remote. These, who are called "sons of Gomer and Javan," being more sensuous, made worship still more to consist in externals than did their socalled parents and kindred. They therefore here constitute a second class.
AC 1154. Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah. That these were so many nations among whom there was such worship, and that they signify so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Gomer, is evident from the Prophets, where the same nations are also mentioned, and by them are everywhere signified doctrinals or rituals-as usual, in each sense, sometimes in the genuine sense, sometimes in the opposite one. "Ashkenaz," in Jeremiah:--
Set ye up a standard in the land, blow the trumpet among the nations, consecrate the nations against her, make to hearken against her the kingdoms of Ararath, Minni, and Ashkenaz (Jeremiah 51:27).
The subject here is the destruction of Babel, where "Ashkenaz" denotes its idolatrous worship, or external worship separate from internal, which destroys Babel. Specifically, it denotes false doctrinals, and therefore is mentioned in the opposite sense. "Togarmah," in Ezekiel:--
Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, these were thy traders in the soul of man, and furnished vessels of brass in thy commerce. They of the house of Togarmah furnished for thine aids, horses, and horsemen, and mules (Ezekiel 27:13, 14).
This is said concerning Tyre, by which they were represented who possessed the knowledges of celestial and spiritual things. "Javan, Tubal, and Meshech," denote, as before, various representative or correspondent rites; "the house of Togarmah" likewise. The external rites of the former have reference to celestial things; and those of the latter, or "the house of Togarmah," to spiritual things, as is evident from the signification of the things in which they traded. Here they are in the genuine sense. In the same:--
Gomer and all his hordes, the house of Togarmah the sides of the north, and with all his hordes (Ezek. 38:6)
denoting perverted doctrinals, which are meant also by "the sides of the north." Here the names of these nations are used in the opposite sense.
AC 1155. And the sons of Javan. That by these are signified still others with whom there was external worship, derived from the worship which prevailed in the nation Javan, can in the same way be seen in the Prophets, where they are named in connection with the actual things (res) themselves, and therein signify nothing different from them. The reason why the sons of Gomer and the sons of Javan only are mentioned, and not the sons of the others mentioned in the second verse - where there are seven - is that the sons of the one relate to the class of spiritual things, and the sons of the other to the class of celestial things. It is evident that the sons of Gomer relate to the class of spiritual things, from the passages in the Prophets cited just above; and that the sons of Javan relate to the class of celestial things, will appear from what follows. The class of spiritual things is distinguished from the class of celestial things by this, that the former relate to truths of faith, and the latter to goods of faith, which are those of charity. Although these distinctions are entirely unknown in the world, yet they are most perfectly known in heaven, not merely as to the generic differences, but as to the specific differences also; for in heaven there is not the least difference that is not distinguished according to the most perfect order. In the world no more is known than that there are varieties of worship, and that in externals - for nothing beyond these is known - they differ from each other. But in heaven the differences, which are innumerable, themselves appear to the life, and indeed such as thee are in internals.
AC 1156. Elishah, and Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim. That these were so many nations, with whom there was such worship, and that they signify so many doctrinals which were rituals, derived from the external worship with Javan, may be seen from the following passages in the Prophets. Of "Elishah" it is written in Ezekiel:--
Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was thy spreading forth, that it might be to thee for an ensign; blue and crimson from the Isles of Elishah were thy covering (Ezekiel 27:7).
The subject here treated of is Tyre, by which they are signified who possess celestial and spiritual riches, or knowledges; "embroidered work from Egypt" denotes memory-knowledges, and thus rituals representative of spiritual things; "blue and crimson from the isles of Elishah," rituals corresponding to internal worship, thus representatives of celestial things. The words are here used in the genuine sense. Of "Tarshish" in Isaiah:--
I will send such as escape of them unto the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud, that draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the Isles afar off (Isaiah 66:19).
In the same:--
Howl, ye ships of Tarshish, for Tyre is laid waste, so that there is no house for entering in; from the land of Kittim it is revealed to them (Isaiah 23:1, 14).
And further concerning Tarshish in (Isa. 60:9; Jer. 10:9; Ezek. 27:12; Ps. 48:7) - where it denotes rituals, that is, doctrinals. Of "Kittim" in Jeremiah:--
Pass over to the isles of Kittim and see; and to Arabia, and consider diligently, whether there hath been such a thing (Jer. 2:10).
And in Isaiah:--
Thou shalt no more rejoice, O thou oppressed virgin daughter of Zidon arise, pass over to Kittim even there shalt thou have no rest (Isaiah 33:12),
where "Kittim" denotes rituals. In Ezekiel:--
Of the oaks of Bashan have they made thine oars they have made thy planks of ivory, the daughter of steps, from the isles of Kittim (Ezekiel 27:6).
This is said of Tyre; "the planks of a ship from the isles of Kittim" denotes externals of worship--thus rituals--which have reference to the class of celestial things. In Moses:--
Ships shall come from the coast of Kittim, and they shall afflict Asshur, and shall afflict Eber (Num. 24:24),
where also "Kittim" denotes external worship, or rituals. Hence it is evident that in the internal sense by all these names are signified actual things (res), which actual things stand in their own regular order and connection.GENESIS 10:3-4 previous - next - text - summary - Genesis - Full Page
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