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CL 444a. By fornication is meant the lust of a youth or young man before marriage, with a woman, a harlot. Lust with a woman not a harlot, that is, with a virgin or with the wife of another, is not fornication; with a virgin, it is stupration, and with the wife of another it is adultery. In what way these two differ from fornication cannot be seen by any rational man unless he looks at love of the sex in its degrees and diversities, seeing, on the one side its chaste things, and on the other its unchaste; and unless on both sides he distributes them into genera and species and thus makes distinctions. Otherwise the distinction between the more chaste and the less, and the more unchaste and the less, cannot stand out in a man's idea. Without these distinctions, all relation between them is lost, and with this, all clear-sightedness in matters of judgment. The understanding is then involved in such shade that it does not know how to distinguish fornication from adultery, and still less the mild kinds of fornication, and likewise of adultery, from the grievous. Thus it mixes evils together, making from diverse evils one pottage, and from diverse goods one paste. In order, therefore, that love of the sex may be known distinctly, as to that side of it on which it inclines and progresses to scortatory love entirely opposite to conjugial love, it is expedient that its beginning which is fornication be examined. This shall be done in the following series:
1. That fornication belongs to love of the sex.
2. That this love commences when a youth begins to think and act from his own understanding, and his speaking voice begins to become masculine.
3. That fornication belongs to the natural man.
4. That fornication is a lust, but not the lust of adultery.
5. That with some men, love of the sex cannot without harmful results be totally restrained from going forth into fornication.
6. That therefore, in populous cities brothels are tolerated.
7. That the lust of fornicating is light so far as it looks to conjugial love and prefers it.
8. That the lust of fornicating is grievous so far as it looks to adultery.
9. That the lust of fornicating is more grievous as it verges to the cupidity of varieties and the cupidity of defloration.
10. That the sphere of the lust of fornicating, as it is in its beginning, is mediate between the sphere of scortatory love and the sphere of conjugial love, and makes an equilibrium.
11. That care must be taken that conjugial love be not destroyed by inordinate and immoderate fornications.
12. Because the conjugial of one man with one wife is the precious jewel of human life and the repository of the Christian religion.
13. That with those who for various reasons cannot yet enter into marriage, and because of salacity cannot restrain their lusts, this conjugial can be preserved if the roaming love of the sex become restricted to one mistress.
14. That pellicacy is preferable to roaming lust provided it be not contracted with many, nor with a virgin or undeflowered woman, nor with a married woman; and provided it be kept separate from conjugial love.
The explanation of the above now follows:
CL 445. I. That fornication belongs to love of the sex. It is said that fornication belongs to love of the sex because fornication is not love of the sex but is from it. Love of the sex is as a fountain from which can be derived both conjugial love and scortatory; and they can be derived therefrom through fornication and without it. Love of the sex is within every man, and it either does or does not put itself forth. If it puts itself forth with a woman, a harlot, before marriage, it is called fornication; if first with a wife, it is called marriage; if with another woman after marriage, it is called adultery. Therefore, as was said, love of the sex is as a fountain from which may spring both chaste love and unchaste. As to the precaution and prudence with which it is possible for chaste conjugial love to advance through fornication, and the imprudence from which unchaste or scortatory love advances thereby, this will be laid open in what follows. Who can draw the conclusion, that one who has committed fornication cannot be more chaste in marriage?
CL 446. II. That love of the sex, from which is fornication, commences when a youth begins to think and act from his own understanding, and his speaking voice begins to become masculine. This is adduced to the end that it may be known that love of the sex and thence fornication has its rise when the understanding commences to become rational of itself, that is, from its own reason to discern and look out for things which shall be advantageous and useful. That which is in the memory from parents and masters then serves it as a plane. At this time a turning takes place in the mind. Prior to this, the boy has thought only from things introduced into the memory, meditating on them and obeying them. After it, he thinks of them from reason; and then, under the leadership of his love, he disposes the things seated in his memory into a new order and begins a life of his own in conformity therewith, gradually thinking more and more according to his own reason, and willing from his own freedom.
That love of the sex follows the initiament of a man's understanding, and progresses according to its vigour, is known; and it is a sign that the love ascends and descends as the understanding ascends and descends. By ascending is meant ascending into wisdom, and by descending, descending into insanity, it being wisdom to restrain love of the sex, and insanity to let it go forth broadcast. If it go forth into fornication, which is the beginning of its activity, then, from principles of honour and morality implanted in his memory and thence in his reason, and afterwards in his reason and thence in his memory, it behoves the man to restrain it.
That with the beginning of a man's understanding his voice also begins to become masculine, is because the understanding thinks, and it is by means of thought that it speaks. This is a sign that the understanding makes the man and also his masculinity; consequently, that as his understanding is elevated, he becomes a male man and also a masculine man; see above (n. 433, 444).
CL 447. III. That fornication belongs to the natural man in like manner as does love of the sex which, if it becomes active before marriage, is called fornication. Every man is born corporeal, becomes sensual, then natural, and successively rational, and if he does not stop there, he becomes spiritual. The reason why his progress is such, is that planes may be formed upon which higher planes may rest as a palace on its foundations. The ultimate plane with its superstructure may also be likened to a ground in which, when prepared, noble seeds are planted.
 As specifically regards love of the sex, it also is first corporeal, for it commences from the flesh. It then becomes sensual, for from its general (delight) the five senses are delighted. After that it becomes natural, like the same love with animals, being a roaming love of the sex. But because man was born that he may become spiritual, it later becomes natural-rational, and from natural-rational, spiritual, and at last spiritual-natural. Then that love, now become spiritual, inflows into and actuates the rational love and through this the sensual love, and finally through this the love in the body and the flesh; and this being its ultimate plane, it acts into it spiritually and at the same time rationally and sensually. It inflows and acts successively in this way when man is in meditation upon it, but simultaneously when he is in the ultimate.
 That fornication belongs to the natural man is because it proceeds proximately from the natural love of the sex, and while this love may be natural-rational, it is not spiritual. love of the sex cannot become spiritual until it becomes conjugial, and from being natural it becomes spiritual when man recedes from roaming lust and devotes himself to one, to whose soul he unites his own soul.
CL 448. IV. That fornication is a lust, but not the lust of adultery. The reasons why fornication is a lust are:
1. Because it comes forth from the natural man, and in everything coming from the natural man is concupiscence and lust. The natural man is nothing but an abode and receptacle of concupiscences and lusts, for, resident there, is all the guilt inherited from his parents.
2. Because the fornicator looks at the sex roamingly and promiscuously, not as yet looking to one of the sex. So long as he is in that state, it is lust that excites him to do what he does; but as he looks to one, and loves to conjoin his life with her life, concupiscence becomes chaste affection, and lust, human love.
CL 449. That the lust of fornication is not the lust of adultery is seen by everyone from common perception. What law and what judge would charge a fornicator with the same crime as an adulterer? The reason why this is seen from common perception is because fornication is not opposed to conjugial love as adultery is. In fornication, conjugial love may lie hidden within, as the spiritual in the natural. Indeed, the spiritual is actually evolved out of the natural, and when evolved, the natural surrounds it as bark surrounds a tree and a scabbard a sword. It also serves the spiritual for protection against violence. It is evident from this, that the natural love which is directed to the sex, precedes the spiritual love which is directed to one of the sex; but if fornication come from the natural love of the sex, it can also be wiped away, provided conjugial love is looked to, desired, and sought as the principal good.
The case is wholly different with the libidinous and obscene love of adultery. That this is the opponent and destroyer of conjugial love was shown in the preceding chapter on The Opposition of Scortatory Love and Conjugial Love. Therefore, if for various reasons an adulterer from purpose or confirmation enters the conjugial bed, an inversion takes place. Within lies hidden the natural with its lascivious and obscene things, and outwardly veiling it about is an appearance of the spiritual. Reason can see from the above that as compared with the lust of adultery, the lust of limited fornication is as the first mildness (of winter) to the cold of a mid-winter in northern regions.
CL 450. V. That with some men, love of the sex cannot without harmful results be totally restrained from going forth into fornication. It were vain to recount the harmful results which excessive repression of love of the sex may cause and effect with those who from superabundance labour with burning heat. With such men, this gives rise to certain diseases of the body and sicknesses of the mind, to say nothing of secret evils which are not to be named. It is otherwise with those whose love of the sex is so scanty that they are able to resist the urgings of its lust; and likewise with those who at the age of early manhood, thus at the first omens, are free to introduce themselves into a legitimate partnership of the bed without any loss of worldly fortune. This is the case with infants in heaven when they have grown to marriageable age; therefore, they do not know what fornication is. The same condition does not obtain on earth where matrimonies cannot be contracted until early manhood has passed. This is the case with many in governments where offices must be earned by long service and means must be acquired to support a house and family, it being only then that a worthy wife can be sought.
CL 451. VI. That therefore, in populous cities brothels are tolerated. This is adduced as a confirmation of the preceding article. That they are tolerated by kings, magistrates, and therefore by judges, watchmen, and the people, in London, Amsterdam, Paris, Vienna, Venice, Naples, and also in Rome, besides in many other places, is well known. Among the reasons why, are also those mentioned above.
CL 452. VII. That fornication is light so far as it looks to conjugial love and prefers it. There are degrees of evil as to its nature, just as there are degrees of good as to its nature. Therefore, every evil is a more or less light or grievous evil, just as every good is a more or less better or best good. It is the same with fornication. Being a lust and belonging to the natural man not yet purified, fornication is an evil. But since every man can be purified, therefore, so far as he approaches a purified state, thus so far as fornication approaches conjugial love which is the purified state of love of the sex, so far that evil becomes a lighter evil, for so far it is wiped away. That the evil of fornication is more grievous so far as it approaches the love of adultery will be seen in the next article.
 That fornication is light so far as the man looks to conjugial love, is because from the unchaste state in which he is, he then looks to a chaste state, and so far as he prefers this (in thought), so far he is in it as to his understanding; and so far as he prefers it not only (in thought) but also in love, so far he is in it as to his will also, thus as to his internal man. Then fornication, if nevertheless he continues in it, is to him a necessity, the causes of which he has examined in himself.
 There are two reasons which render fornication light with those who, in thought and love, prefer the conjugial state. The first is, because with them a conjugial life is the purpose, intention or end. The second is, because in themselves they separate evil from good. As regards the FIRST POINT--that with them a conjugial life is their purpose, intention or end--this is because a man is such as he is in his purpose, intention or end. Such also is he before the Lord and before angels, yea, he is also regarded as such in the view of wise men in the world; for intention is the soul of all actions and makes for blame or excuse in the world and for imputation after death.
 As regards the SECOND POINT that those who prefer conjugial love to the lust of fornication, separate evil from good--they thus separate the unchaste from the chaste, and those who separate these two in their perception and intention, before they are themselves in the good or the chaste, when they come into the conjugial state are separated and purified from the evil of that lust. That this is not the case with those who in fornication look to adultery, will be seen in the article that now follows.
CL 453. VIII. That the lust of fornicating is grievous so far as it looks to adultery. All those in the lust of fornication look to adultery who do not believe adulteries to be sins and think the same of marriages as of adulteries, with the sole distinction of lawful and unlawful. Such men make one evil out of all evils; they mingle them together, like filth with edible foods in one dish and offscourings with wines in one cup, and then eat and drink. They do the same thing with love of the sex, fornication, pellicacy, the milder, grievous, and more grievous kinds of adultery, yea, and with stupration or defloration. Add to this, that not only do they mingle all these together but they also mingle them with marriages and pollute the latter with the same idea. To such men, who do not even distinguish between the latter and the former, after their customary roamings with the sex, comes cold, loathing and disgust, first for their married partner, then for other women, and finally for the whole sex. It is self-evident that with such men there is no purpose, intention or end looking to what is good or chaste, whereby they may be exculpated; nor any separation of evil from good, or of the unchaste from the chaste, whereby they may be purified, as is the case with those spoken of in the preceding article (n. 452) who from fornication look to conjugial love and prefer it.
It is allowed to confirm the above by this new information from heaven: I have met many who in the world had lived outwardly like others, dressing finely, faring sumptuously, doing business for gain like other men, attending dramatic performances, joking about amatory matters as if from lust, besides other like things; yet in some, the angels condemned these things as evils of sin, and in some they did not account them as evils; and the latter they declared guiltless, and the former guilty. To the question why they did so, when yet the men had done the same things, they answered that they view all men from their purpose, intention or end, and make distinctions accordingly; thus, that those whom the end excuses or condemns, they excuse or condemn, for all in heaven have good as an end, and all in hell have evil as an end; and that this and nothing else is meant by the Lord's words, Judge not that ye be not condemned (Matt. 7:1).
CL 454. IX. That the lust of fornicating is more grievous as it verges to the cupidity of varieties and the cupidity of defloration. The reason is because these two are accessories of adultery, making it more grievous; for adulteries are mild, grievous, and more grievous; and each kind is estimated according to its opposition to conjugial love, and thus its destruction thereof. That the cupidity of varieties and the cupidity of defloration, confirmed by actual deeds, devastate conjugial love and sink it, as it were, to the bottom of the sea, will be seen in the chapters concerning them which are to follow.
CL 455. X. That the sphere of the lust of fornicating, as it is in its beginning, is mediate between the sphere of scortatory love and the sphere of conjugial love, and makes an equilibrium. These two spheres, that of scortatory love and that of conjugial love, were treated of in the preceding chapter, and it was shown that the sphere of scortatory love ascends from hell, and the sphere of conjugial love descends from heaven (n. 435); that the two spheres meet in both worlds but do not join (n. 436); that between them there is equilibrium, and man is in that equilibrium (n. 437); that man can turn himself to whichever sphere he pleases, but that so far as he turns to the one, he turns away from the other (n. 438). As to what is meant by spheres, see (n. 434) and the passages there cited. That the sphere of the lust of fornicating is mediate between these two spheres and makes an equilibrium, is because when in it, a man can turn to the sphere of conjugial love, that is, to that love, and also to the sphere of the love of adultery, that is, to the love thereof. If he turns to conjugial love, he turns to heaven, if to the love of adultery, he turns to hell. Either turning is at the free determination, good pleasure, and will of the man, to the end that he may be able to act freely according to reason, and not from instinct; consequently, that he may be a man, and may appropriate influx to himself. It is said the lust of fornication as it is in its beginning, because it is then in a middle state. Who does not know that all that a man does in the beginning is done from concupiscence because from the natural man? And who does not know that this concupiscence is not imputed when from natural he is becoming spiritual? It is the same with the lust of fornication when the man's love is becoming conjugial.
CL 456. XI. That care must be taken that conjugial love be not destroyed by immoderate and inordinate fornications. By immoderate and inordinate fornications whereby conjugial love is destroyed are meant fornications whereby not only the powers are enervated but all the delicacies of conjugial love are taken away; for from unbridled licence in fornications arise not only weaknesses and consequent lack, but also uncleanness and shamelessness. By reason of these, conjugial love cannot be perceived and sensated in its cleanness and chastity and so in its sweetness and the delights of its flower; to say nothing of injuries to body and mind and of the forbidden allurements which not only deprive conjugial love of its blessed delights but also take it away and turn it into cold and thus into loathing. Such fornications are wild revels whereby conjugial sports are turned into tragic scenes; for immoderate and inordinate fornications are like fires which rise up from the ultimates and burn the body, parch the fibres, defile the blood, and vitiate the rational things of the mind; for, like a fire, they burst out from the foundation into the house and consume the whole. It behoves parents to provide against this; for an adolescent youth excited by lust cannot as yet impose restraint upon himself from reason.
CL 457. XII. Because the conjugial of one man with one wife is the precious jewel of human life and the repository of the Christian religion. These are the two things which have been demonstrated universally and in detail in the whole of the preceding Part on Conjugial Love and its Delights of Wisdom. That it is the precious jewel of human life is because the nature of man's life is such as is the conjugial love with him. This makes the inmost of his life, being the life of wisdom cohabiting with its love, and of love cohabiting with its wisdom. Hence it is the life of the delights of both. In a word, by this love man is a living soul. It is from this that the conjugial of one man with one wife is called the precious jewel of human life. This is confirmed by what was said above, namely, that with one wife, because there is union of minds there is also truly conjugial friendship, confidence, potency (n. 333, 334); that in and from that union are the celestial blessings, spiritual happiness, and thence natural delights which have been provided from the beginning for those who are in love truly conjugial (n. 335); that it is the fundamental love of all celestial and spiritual loves, and thence of all natural loves, and that into it are gathered all joys and gladness from their first to their last (n. 65-69); and that, regarded in its origin, it is the sport of wisdom and love. All this has been fully demonstrated in the Delights of Wisdom concerning Conjugial Love which forms the first Part of this work.
CL 458. That this love is the repository of the Christian religion is because that religion makes one with the love, and cohabits with it; for it has been shown that no others come into that love and can be in it save those who approach the Lord, love the truths of His Church, and do its goods (n. 70, 71); that that love is from the Lord alone, and hence is with those who are of the Christian religion (n. 131, 335, 336); that that love is according to the state of the Church because according to the state of wisdom with man (n. 130). All this is confirmed in the entire chapter on its correspondence with the marriage of the Lord and the Church (n. 116-131); and in the chapter on the origin of that love from the marriage of good and truth (n. 83-102).
CL 459. XIII. That with those who for various reasons cannot yet enter into marriage, and because of salacity cannot restrain their lusts, this conjugial can be preserved if the (roaming) love of the sex become restricted to one mistress. That immoderate and inordinate lust cannot be curbed by those who are salacious, reason sees and experience teaches. In order then, that, with those who labour under burning heat, and for many reasons cannot hasten or look forward to marriage, what is immoderate and inordinate may be curbed and reduced to something moderate and ordinate, there appears to be no other refuge, and, as it were, asylum than the taking of a mistress, called in French maitresse. It is well known that in kingdoms where there are governments, matrimonies cannot be contracted by many until after the period of early manhood has passed, inasmuch as offices must first be earned and means acquired to support a house and family, it being only then that a worthy wife can be sought. Yet, with few men can the fountain of virtue be kept shut up during the preceding age and reserved for a wife. It is indeed preferable that it be reserved; but if, because of the unbridled power of lust it cannot be, then an intermediate means is sought whereby it can be provided that conjugial love shall not perish in the meantime. In favour of the keeping of a mistress as such a means are:
1. That promiscuous and inordinate fornications are thereby curbed and limited, and a more restrained state is thus induced which is more akin to the conjugial life.
 2. That the ardour of venery which, in its beginning, is boiling and, as it were, burning, is allayed and made milder, and thus the lasciviousness of salacity which is filthy is tempered by something like an analogue of marriage.
 3. By its means, the forces are not thrown away and weakness contracted, as is the case in roaming and unlimited satyriases.
 4. Diseases of the body and insanities of the mind are thereby avoided.
 5. Thereby likewise adulteries are guarded against, which are whoredoms with wives; also stuprations which are violations of virgins, not to speak of criminal practices which are not to be named; for when he first comes to manhood, a boy has no thought that adulteries and stuprations are other than fornications, thinking that the one is the same as the other. Nor does he know from reason how to resist the enticements of those of the sex who have purposely devoted themselves to harlotry; but in pellicacy, which is a more ordered and sane fornication, he can learn and see the distinctions.
 6. By pellicacy there is no approach to the four kinds of lust treated of in what follows, which are in the highest degree destructive of conjugial love, namely, the lust of defloration, the lust of varieties, the lust of violation, and the lust of seducing innocences. What has been said, however, is not for those who can restrain the heat of their lust, nor for those who can enter into marriage as soon as they attain to manhood and can offer and devote the first-fruits of their vigour to their wife.
CL 460. XIV. That pellicacy is preferable to roaming lust provided it be not contracted with many, nor with a virgin or undeflowered woman, nor with a married woman; and provided it be kept separate from conjugial love. When and with whom pellicacy is preferable to roaming lust has been pointed out just above.
1. That pellicacy is not to be contracted with more than one, is because when with many there is in it something polygamous, and this induces on the man a state merely natural, and thrusts him into a sensual state so that he cannot be elevated into the spiritual state wherein conjugial love must be (n. 338, 339).
 2. That it is not to be contracted with a virgin or undeflowered woman, is because with women conjugial love makes one with their virginity, and from this, is the chastity, purity, and sanctity of that love. Wherefore, solemnly to promise and surrender her virginity to any man is to give a pledge that she will love him to eternity. For this reason, a virgin can by no rational consent bargain it away save with the solemn promise of a conjugial covenant. It is also the crown of her honour, and therefore, to snatch it away without the covenant of marriage, and afterwards to discard her, is to make a harlot of some virgin who might have become a bride and a chaste wife, or to defraud some man--and both deeds are damnable. He therefore who takes to himself a virgin as a mistress may indeed cohabit with her, and thus initiate her into the friendship of love, but still with the constant intention, if she does not commit whoredom, that she be or may become his wife.
 3. That pellicacy is not to be contracted with a married woman, because this is adultery, is evident.
 4. That the love of pellicacy is to be kept separate from conjugial love is because they are distinct loves and therefore are not to be commingled; for the love of pellicacy is an unchaste, natural, and external love, but the love of marriage is chaste, spiritual, and internal. The love of pellicacy keeps the souls of the two distinct and conjoins only the sensual things of the body, but the love of marriage unites souls, and also, from the union of souls, so unites the sensual things of the body that from two they become as one, that is, one flesh.
 5. The love of pellicacy enters only into the understanding and into all that depends on the understanding; but the love of marriage enters also into the will and into all that depends on the will, thus, into each and every single thing of the man. Wherefore, if the love of pellicacy becomes the love of marriage, the man cannot with any right withdraw from it without a violation of the conjugial union; and if he does withdraw and take another woman, conjugial love perishes in the breach of it. It should be known that the love of pellicacy is kept separate from conjugial love, by the man not promising marriage to his mistress, nor leading her into any hope of marriage. Nevertheless, it is preferable that the torch of love of the sex be first kindled with the wife.
CL 461. To the above shall be added the following Memorable Relation:
I was once speaking with a novitiate spirit who while in the world had meditated much on heaven and hell. By novitiate spirits are meant men recently deceased who, being then spiritual men, are called spirits. As soon as he entered the spiritual world, this novitiate began in like manner to meditate on heaven and hell; and he seemed to himself to be in joy when meditating on heaven, and in sadness when meditating on hell. When he noticed that he was in the spiritual world, he at once inquired where heaven was, and where hell; also what these two were, and what their nature; and he received the answer, "Heaven is above your head, and hell is beneath your feet, for you are now in the world of spirits which is mediate between heaven and hell; but as to what heaven and hell are, and what their nature, this we cannot describe in a few words."
Burning with the desire of learning, he then threw himself on his knees and devoutly prayed to God that he might be instructed. And lo, an angel appeared at his right hand and, raising him up, said, "You have made supplication that you may be instructed about heaven and hell. INQUIRE AND LEARN WHAT DELIGHT IS AND YOU WILL KNOW" and having said these words, the angel was taken up.
 The novitiate spirit then said within himself: "What is this? Inquire and learn what delight is and you will know what heaven and hell are, and what their nature." Leaving that place, he then wandered about, and addressing those whom he met, he said, "Pray tell me, if you please, what delight is?" And some said, "What sort of question is that? Who does not know what delight is? Is it not joy and gladness? Therefore, delight is delight; one delight is like another; we know of no distinction." Others said that delight was laughter of the mind; "for when the mind laughs, the face is merry, the speech jocular, the gestures playful, and the whole man is in delight." Still others said, "Delight is nothing else than feasting and eating delicacies, and drinking and getting drunk on generous wine, and then talking together on various subjects, especially the sports of Venus and Cupid."
 Indignant on hearing these answers, the novitiate spirit said to himself, "These are the answers of boors and not of cultured men; such delights are neither heaven nor hell. Would that I might meet some wise men." And, leaving them, he inquired, "Where are there wise men?"
He was then seen by an angelic spirit who said: "I perceive that you are kindled with the desire of knowing what the universal of heaven is, and what the universal of hell; and since this universal is delight, I will lead you to a hill whereon is a daily meeting of men who examine effects, of men who investigate causes, and of men who explore ends. They are three companies: Those who examine effects are called Spirits of the Sciences and, abstractly, Sciences; those who investigate causes are called Spirits of Intelligence and, abstractly, Intelligences; and those who explore ends are called Spirits of Wisdom and, abstractly, Wisdoms. Directly above them in heaven are angels who from ends see causes, and from causes effects. From these angels the three companies have illustration."
 Taking the novitiate spirit by the hand, he then led him up the hill and to the company of those who explore ends and are called Wisdoms. To these the novitiate spirit said "Pardon me for coming to you. The reason is because from childhood I have meditated on heaven and hell. I have lately come into this world, and some spirits who were then associated with me said that here heaven is above my head and hell beneath my feet; but they did not tell me what they are and what their nature. Therefore, coming into a state of anxiety from constant thought about them, I prayed to God; and then an angel stood by me and said, Inquire and learn what delight is and you will know. I have inquired, but as yet in vain. I beg you, therefore, to teach me, if you please, what delight is."
 To this the Wisdoms responded: "Delight is the all of life with all in heaven, and the all of life with all in hell. With those who are in heaven, it is the delight of good and truth, but with those who are in hell, it is the delight of evil and falsity; for all delight pertains to love, and love is the esse of man's life. Therefore, since man is a man according to the nature of his love, he is a man according to the nature of his delight. The activity of love is what makes the sensation of delight. In heaven its activity is with wisdom, in hell it is with insanity. In their subjects, both activities present themselves as delight; but the heavens and the hells are in opposite delights because in opposite loves. The heavens are in the love and thence in the delight of doing good, but the hells are in the love and thence in the delight of doing evil. If, therefore, you know what delight is, you know what heaven and hell are, and what their nature. But make further inquiry and learn what delight is from those who investigate causes and are called Intelligences. They are to the right from here."
 Leaving the wisdoms, the novitiate then approached the Intelligences, and telling them the cause of his coming, asked if they would instruct him as to what delight is. They were rejoiced at the question and said: "It is true that he who knows what delight is, knows what heaven and hell are and what their nature. The will, from which man is a man, is not moved a single jot except by delight; for regarded in itself, the will is nothing but the affection and effect of some love, thus of some delight, it being something pleasing, agreeable, and pleasurable that makes men will. And since it is the will that moves the understanding to think, therefore, not the least jot of an idea of thought is possible save from delight flowing in from the will. This is because the Lord, by influx from Himself, actuates all things of the soul and all things of the mind with angels, spirits, and men; and He actuates them by the influx of love and wisdom. It is this influx that is the activity from which comes all delight. In its origin this delight is called blessed, blissful, and happy, and in its derivation, delightful, pleasant, and pleasurable; in a universal sense, it is called good. But spirits of hell turn all that is with them around. Thus they turn good into evil and truth into falsity, their delight being permanently the same; for without this permanence of delight, they would have neither will nor sensation, and so no life. What the delight of hell is, and its nature and source, is thus manifest, and also what the delight of heaven is, and its nature and source."
 After hearing this, the novitiate was led down to the third company where were those who examine effects and are called Sciences. These said: "Descend into the lower earth and ascend into the higher earth, and in the latter you will perceive and sensate the enjoyments of the angels of heaven, and in the former, the enjoyments of the spirits of hell."
And lo, at a distance from them, the ground then yawned open, and through the opening rose three devils who seemed to be on fire, and this from the delight of their love. Perceiving that the three devils had risen from hell providentially, the novitiate's companions said to them, "Come no nearer, but from the place where you are, tell us something about your delights." The devils then said, "Know this then: Every one, whether good or evil, is in his own delight, a good man in the delight of his good, and an evil man in the delight of his evil." Being then asked, "What is your delight?" they said that it was the delight of committing whoredom, stealing, defrauding, blaspheming.
Being further asked, "What is the nature of these delights?" they said, "By others they are smelled as fetid odours from excrement, and as the stench of dead bodies, and the rank smell from stagnant urine."
They were then asked, "Are they delightful to you?" and they answered, "They are most delightful." They then said, "Then you are like those unclean beasts which pass their lives in such stenches." They replied, "If we are, we are; but such stenches are the delights of our nostrils."
 They were then asked, "What more?" They answered: "Every one is allowed to be in his own delight, even the most unclean as they call it, if only they do not molest good spirits and angels. But because, from our delight, we cannot do otherwise than molest them, we are cast into workhouses where we suffer direful things. There, the restraining and withdrawal of our delights is what is called the torment of hell. It is also interior pain."
They were further asked"`Why did you molest the good?" They said that they could not help it. When they saw any angel and smelled the Divine sphere around him, it was as if fury invaded them.
The angels then said, "In this also you are like wild beasts."
And then, as soon as the devils saw the novitiate spirit with the angels, they were overcome with a fury which appeared like the fire of hatred. Therefore, that they might do no harm, they were cast back into hell.
After this, the angels appeared who from ends see causes, and through causes effects, and who were in the heaven above the three companies. They were seen in a bright light which rolled downwards in spiral curves and brought with it a garland of flowers. This they placed on the head of the novitiate spirit. Then, from that heaven there came to him a voice saying "This laurel is given you because from childhood you have meditated on heaven and hell."