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Mark Chapter 7



  1. and there gathered together to Him the Pharisees, and some of the Scribes, who came from Jerusalem.
  2. And having seen some of His disciples eating bread with defiled, that is to say, with unwashed, hands, they found fault.
  3. For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash [their] hands up to the wrist, eat not, holding the tradition of the elders.
  4. And [when they come] from the market, except they wash, they eat not; and many other things there are which they have received to hold, [as] the washing of cups and pots, brazen vessels, and couches.
  5. Then the Pharisees and Scribes asked Him, Why walk not Your disciples according to the tradition of the elders, but eat bread with unwashed hands?

that they who are of the perverse church, are scrupulous about the doctrines of men and external purification, but at the same time careless about internal purification and fulfilling the requirements of god. (Verses 1-6.)

  1. But He answering said unto them, Well did Esaias prophesy of you hypocrites, as it is written, This people honours Me with their lips, but their heart is far from Me.
  2. But in vain do they worship Me, teaching doctrines the commandments of men.
  3. For laying aside the commandment of God, you hold the tradition of men, the washing of pots and cups: and many other such like things you do.
  4. And He said to them, Full well you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition.

Hence their worship becomes merely external and hypocritical, as had been predicted. (Verses 6—9.)

  1. For Moses said, Honour your father and your mother, and he that speaks evil of father or mother, let him die the death.
  2. But you say, If a man shall say to father or mother, Corban, that is to say, [it is] a gift, by whatever you mightest be profited by me; [it is sufficient].
  3. And you suffer him to do nothing more for his father or his mother;
  4. Making the Word of God of none effect by your tradition which you have delivered: and many such like things do you.
  5. And when He had called [to Him] all the multitude, He said to them, Hearken to Me all of you, and understand:

For whereas the Divine Love and Wisdom ought to be exalted above all other things, they of the perverse church exalt themselves above those Divine principles, which is contrary to the commandment of god. (Verses 10— 14.)

  1. There is nothing from without a man, which entering into him can defile him: but the things which come out of him, those are they who defile the man.

Who forms His judgement of every one, not from the doctrine which he professes with his lips, but from the intention and purpose of his heart and life. (Verse 15.)

  1. If any man have ears to hear, let him hear.

Which judgement ought to be well attended to. (Verse 16)

  1. And when He was entered into a house from the multitude, His disciples asked Him concerning the parable.
  2. And He says to them, Are you so without understanding also? Do you not consider that every thing from without which enters into a man, cannot defile him;
  3. Because it enters not into his heart, but into the belly, and goes out into the drain, purging all meats?

Since nothing either of good or evil is appropriated to man, whilst it is only in the thought of his understanding, until it gains a place in his will or love, and thence comes into the thought and act. (Verses 17—20.)

  1. And He said, That which comes out of a man, that defiles the man.
  2. For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed evil thoughts, adulteries, fornications, murders,
  3. Thefts, covetousnesses, wickednesses, deceit, lasciviousness, an evil eye, blasphemy, pride, foolishness.

For from the will or love comes all opposition to heavenly good and truth, whence comes perversion of the rational faculty, the adulteration of good, the falsification of truth, the destruction of charity, selfish appropriation of divine gifts, the lust of possessing what is another's, all kinds of sin against god, hypocritical dealing, craving, perversion of the understanding, opposition to the truth, exaltation of self above god, with separation from all heavenly light. (Verses 20—23.)

  1. All these evil things come from within, and defile the man.

These evils therefore render man impure in the sight of god, because they proceed from the love. (Verse 23.)

  1. And rising thence, He went into the borders of Tyre and Sidon, and entering into a house, would have no one know it, but He could not be hid.
  2. For a woman hearing of Him, whose daughter had an Unclean spirit, came and fell at His feet:
  3. The woman was a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation, and she besought Him that He would cast forth the devil out of her daughter.

That they who are out of the church, and yet have faith in the lord, apply to Him for deliverance from infernal falses. (Verses 24, 25, 26.)

  1. But Jesus said to her, Let the children first be satisfied: for it is not worthy to take the children's bread, and to cast it to the dogs.
  2. But she answered and said to Him, Yes, Lord: yet the dogs under the table eat of the children's crumbs.
  3. And He said to her, For this saying go away: the devil is gone out of your daughter.
  4. And when she was come to her house, she found the devil gone out, and her daughter laid upon the bed.

But their application seems at first to be disregarded, because they are not of the church; nevertheless it is finally granted, and they are liberated from infernal falses, because they are found to be principled in faith grounded in charity. (Verses 27—31.)

  1. And again departing from the coasts of Tyre and Sidon, He came to the sea of Galilee, through the midst of the coasts of Decapolis.
  2. And they bring to Him one that was deaf, having an impediment in his speech; and they beseech Him to put His hand upon him.
  3. And taking him aside from the multitude, He put His fingers into his ears, and having spat, He touched his tongue;
  4. And looking up to heaven, He sighed, and says to him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened.
  5. And immediately his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue was loosened, and he spoke plainly.

They also who are not in the understanding of truth, and consequently not in obedience, and who on that account can hardly make confession of the lord and of the truth of the church, are restored by the lord to the perception of truth, and to the power of confessing the lord and the truth of the church. (Verses 31—36.)

  1. And He charged them that they should tell no one: but the more He charged them, so much the more they published [it];
  2. And were beyond measure astonished, saying, He hath done all things well: He makes both the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak.

So that the Divine Mercy and Omnipotence excite adoration in all. (Verses 36, 37.)


Chapter VII.

verses 1—23. For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands, &c.—That "washings" were enjoined the children of Israel, is known from the statutes enacted by Moses; as that Aaron should wash himself before he put on the garments of his ministration, (Lev 16:4, 24.) and before he approached the altar to minister; (Exod 30:18-21; 40:30, 31.) in like manner the Levites, (Numb 8:6, 7.) and also others who became unclean by sins: and that they are said to be "sanctified by washings." (Exod 19:14; 40:12j Lev 8:6.) Wherefore, for the purpose of washing, a molten sea and several basins were placed near the temple; (1 Kings 7:23-39.) nay, they were enjoined to wash vessels and utensils, as tables, chairs, beds, dishes, and cups. (Lev 11:32; 14:8, 9; 15:5-12; 17:15, 16; Mark 7:4.) But "washings," and several ordinances of a like nature, were enjoined and commanded the children of Israel, because the church established among them was a representative church, which was of such a nature as to prefigure the Christian church that was to come; on which account, when the Lord came into the world, He abrogated the representatives, which were all external, and instituted a church in which all tilings were to be internal. Thus the Lord put away figures, and revealed their true antetypes, just as when a person removes a veil, or opens a door, and thus affords the means not only of seeing the things within, but of approaching them. Of all those representatives the Lord retained but two, which were to contain in one complex whatever related to the internal church; these two are Baptism instead of washings, and the Holy Supper instead of the lamb which was sacrificed every day, and particularly at the feast of the passover.

That the above-mentioned "washings" figured and shadowed forth, that is, represented, spiritual washings, consisting in purifications from evils and falses, is very evident from the following passages:—"When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgement, and by the spirit of expurgation." (Isaiah 4:4.) "Though you wash you with nitre, and take you much soap, still your iniquity will retain its spots." (Jer 2:22; Job 9:30, 31.) "Wash me from mine iniquity, and I shall be whiter than snow." (Psalm 51:2, 7.) "O Jerusalem, wash your heart from wickedness, that you may be saved." (Jer 4:14.) "Wash you, make you clean: put away the evil of your doings from before Mine eyes; cease to do evil." (Isaiah 1:16.) That the washing of man's spirit is meant by the washing of his body, and that the internal things of the church were represented by such external rites as belonged to the Israelitish church, is very clear from these words of the Lord,—" The Pharisees and Scribes seeing that His disciples ate bread with unwashed hands, found fault; for the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands, eat not. And many other things there are which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups and pots, brazen vessels, and tables. To whom and to the multitude the Lord said, Hearken to Me every one of you, and understand: there is nothing from without a man, that entering into him can defile him; but the things which come out of him, those are they who defile the man." (Mark 7:1, 2, 3, 4, 14, 15.)

What man of sound reason cannot discern that the washing of the face, of the hands and feet, and of all the limbs, nay of the whole body in a bath, effects nothing more than to wash away the dirt, so that the outward form may appear clean in the sight of men? And who cannot understand that it is impossible for any such washing to enter into the spirit of man, and in like manner render that clean? For a thief, a robber, or an assassin have it in their power to wash themselves, even till their skin shine; but will that wash away their thieving, pillaging, and murderous disposition? Does not the internal enter by influx into the external, and operate the effects of its will and understanding? But for the external to enter by influx into the internal is utterly impossible, being contrary to nature, because it is contrary to order.

Hence it follows that "washings," and baptism also, unless the internal of man be purified from evils and falses, are of no more avail than the washing of cups and platters by the Jews, or than the whitening of the sepulchres mentioned in the same passage, which "appear beautiful without, but within are full of dead men's bones, and all uncleanness." (Matt 23:25-28.) This is further evident from this circumstance, that the hells are full of satans, who were once men, some baptized, and some not baptized. TCR 670—673.

Verse 4. The washing of cups, pots, &c.— Amongst the Israelites external things [such as cups, pots, vessels, &c.] represented internal, and things internal were the holy things themselves of the church pertaining to them, and not the external things without the internal. Nevertheless, that that nation still placed all sanctity in things external, and not in things internal, is manifest from the Lord's words in Matt 23:25-27,-" Woe to you, Scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! you cleanse the outside of the cup and platter, but the interiors are full of plundering and excess," &c. AC 10234.

They who are in external things alone, [or who make religion consist only in external acts and ceremonies of worship, as signified by the "washing of cups, pots," &c.] do not even know what it is to be in internal things, for they do not know what an internal principle is. If any one makes mention before them of an internal principle, they either affirm that it is, because they know from doctrine that it is (but in such case they affirm from fraud), or they deny it with the mouth also as with the heart; for they do not go beyond the sensual principles which belong to the external man. Hence it is that they do not believe any life after death, and think resurrection impossible unless the body is to rise again, on which account it has been permitted that they should have such an opinion of the resurrection, otherwise they would have no opinion at all, for they place the all of life in the body, not knowing that the life of their body is from the life of their spirit, which lives after death. They who are in external things alone, cannot have any other belief, for the external things belonging to them extinguish the all of thought, consequently the all of faith concerning internal things. Inasmuch as great ignorance prevails at this day as to what it is to be in external things without internal, it shall be here explained. They who are without conscience are all in external things alone, for the internal man manifests himself by conscience; and all they have no conscience who think and do what is true and good, not for the sake of what is true and good, but for the sake of themselves, on account of their own honour and gain, and also on account of the fear of the law and of life; for if their reputation, honour, gain, and life were not endangered, they would rush headlong without conscience into all iniquities. This appears manifest from the case of such in another life, who in the life of the body had been such, where, inasmuch as the interiors are opened, they are in a perpetual endeavour to destroy others, wherefore they are in hell, and are kept bound there in a spiritual manner.

In order that it may be further known what it is to be in external things, and what in internal, and that they who are in external things alone, cannot comprehend what internal things are, consequently cannot be affected by them (for no one is affected by those things which he does not comprehend), let us take this truth for an example,—that to be the least is to be the greatest in heaven, and that to be low is to be high, also that to be poor and needy is to be rich and abounding. They who are in external things alone, cannot comprehend these things, for they think that the least cannot in any way be the greatest, nor the low high, nor the poor rich, nor the needy abundant; when yet this is altogether the case in heaven; and because they cannot comprehend, therefore they cannot be affected by those things, and when they reflect upon them from the corporeal and worldly things in which they are, they hold them in aversion. That the case is so in heaven, they are altogether ignorant, and so long as they are in external things alone, are not willing to know, yea, neither are they able to know; for in heaven he who knows, acknowledges, and believes from the heart, that is, from the affection, that nothing of ability is from self, but that all of ability he has is from the Lord,—he is called least, and yet is greatest, because he has ability from the Lord. The case is similar with him who is low (or humble), that he is high, for he who is low, acknowledging and believing from affection, that he has nothing of ability from himself, nothing of intelligence or wisdom from himself, and nothing of good and truth from himself,—he is gifted with ability, with the intelligence of truth, and the wisdom of good, above others, from the Lord. In like manner the poor and needy are rich and abounding, for he is called poor and needy who believes from the heart and affection that he possesses nothing of himself, knows nothing, and is nothing wise of himself, and of himself has no ability, and he in heaven is rich and abounds, for the Lord gives him all opulence, inasmuch as he is wiser than others, richer than others, dwells in most magnificent palaces, AC 1116, 1626, 1627, and is in the treasures of all the riches of heaven. To take another example,—he who is in external things alone, cannot in any way comprehend that heavenly joy consists in loving his neighbour better than himself, and the Lord above all things, and that happiness is according to the quantity and quality of that love; for he who is in external things alone, loves himself better than his neighbour, and if he love others, it is because they favour himself, and thus he loves them for the sake of himself, consequently he loves himself in them and them in himself. He who is such, cannot know what it is to love others better than himself, yea, he is not willing to know it, neither is he able, wherefore when he is told that heaven consists in such love, AC 548, he holds it in aversion; hence it is, that they who have been such in the life of the body, cannot come near to any heavenly society, and when they do come near, by reason of their aversion they cast themselves down headlong into hell.

Inasmuch as few know at this day what it is to be in external things, and what in internal, and whereas the generality believe that they who are in internal things cannot be in external, and vice versa, it is allowed for the sake of illustration to adduce one further example, for instance, the nourishment of the body and the nourishment of the soul. He who is in pleasures merely external, is nice about his person, pampers his appetite, loves to live sumptuously, and places his chief pleasure in the dainties of the table; but he who is in internal things, although he also has satisfaction in the above gratifications, yet his ruling affection is, that the body may be nourished by meats with pleasure for the sake of its health, to the end that there may be a sound mind in a sound body, thus principally for the sake of the mind's health, to which the health of the body serves as a means; he who is a spiritual man does not rest here, but regards the health of the mind or soul as a means of intelligence and wisdom, not for the sake of reputation, honours, or gain, but for the sake of the life after death; he who is spiritual in an interior degree, regards intelligence and wisdom as a mediate end, that he may serve as a useful member in the Lord's kingdom; and he who is a celestial man, that he may serve the Lord; to this latter, corporeal food is a means to enjoy spiritual food, and spiritual food is a means to enjoy celestial food; and because they ought so to serve, therefore also those foods correspond: hence also they are called foods. From these considerations it may appear what it is to be in external things alone, and what in internal. The Jewish and Israelitish nation (treated of in this chapter, Gen. xxxiv., in the internal historical sense), except those who have died infants, are for the most part of the above description, for they are in external things above all other nations, inasmuch as they are in avarice; they who love lucre and gain, not for the sake of any other use, but for the sake of gold and silver, and place all the delight of their lives in the possession thereof, are in the outermost or lowest things, for the things which they love are altogether earthly; but they who love gold and silver for the sake of some use, elevate themselves according to the use out of earthly things; the use itself, which man loves, determines his life, and distinguishes him from others; an evil use makes him infernal, a good use makes him heavenly; not indeed the use itself, but the love of the use, for the life of every one is in the love. AC 4459.

Verse 9. And He said to them, Full well you reject the commandment of God, that you may keep your tradition.—This "rejection" is pointed at in the Prophet Isaiah, where it is written:—" You have seen the breaches of the city of David, that they are very many: and you have gathered together the waters of the lower fish-pool;" (Is 22:9.) where "the breaches of the city of David" denote false principles of doctrine, and "the waters of the lower fish-pool" denote the traditions, by which the Jews made breaches into the truths that are in the Word. AC 4926.

The reason why they who were obsessed by devils [Luke 8:27-32.] did not abide in the house, but in the tombs, was, because during their abode in the world they were in false principles grounded in evil, or, in knowledges from the Word, which they rendered lifeless by applying them to confirm evils, and also to destroy the genuine truths of the church, especially to destroy the truths relating to the Lord, to the Word, and to a life after death, which dead knowledges in the Word are called traditions. AE 659.

By a "dead worship" [such as that of those who only care about external things, and not internal] is understood worship alone, which consists in going to church, hearing sermons, taking the Holy Supper, reading the Word and books of piety, speaking about God, heaven and hell, the life after death, and especially concerning piety, praying morning and evening, and still not desiring to know any truths of faith, nor willing to do any goods of charity, believing that they have salvation by worship alone; when nevertheless worship without truths, and without a life according to them, is only an external sign of charity and faith, within which, if there be not charity and faith, there may lie hidden evils and falsities of all kinds. For genuine worship consists in charity and faith, without which, worship is like the skin or surface of any fruit, which within is rotten and worm-eaten, and is consequently a dead fruit. That such a worship prevails at the present day in the church is known. AR 154.

Verse 14. He said to them, Hearken to Me all of you, and understand.—That the understanding is to be kept captive under obedience to faith, [or to be kept in darkness as to the understanding of divine truths] is a dogma which the New Church rejects; and in the place of such a dogma, it maintains that the truth of the church must be seen in rational light, in order to be believed. For the Truth can no otherwise be seen than rationally. How can any man be led by the Lord, and conjoined with heaven, who shuts up his understanding against such things as belong to salvation and eternal life? For is it not the understanding which must be illustrated and taught? And what is the understanding when shut up by religion but thick darkness, and indeed such darkness as rejects from itself all light which illustrates? Who can acknowledge any truth, and retain it, except he sees it? What is a truth not seen but a word not understood? which by sensual corporeal men may be retained in the memory, but not by wise men; yea, wise men reject all empty words from their memory, that is, such words as have not entered into the memory from the understanding, as that the One God is three as to Persons, and that the Lord born from eternity is not one and the same with the Lord born in time, that is, that the one Lord is God, and no other. And likewise that the life of charity, which consists in good works, and also in repentance from evil works, contributes nothing to salvation. A wise man does not understand this; wherefore from his rationality he says—"Does therefore religion contribute nothing to salvation? Does not religion consist in shunning evil and in doing good? and does not the doctrine of the church teach this, and also how man should believe, in order that he may do from God the good which religion enjoins him to do?" AR 564.

Verses 15—24. There is nothing from without a man, which entering into him can defile him: but the things which come out of him, those are the things which defile a man.—By those "things which come from without," in the sense of the letter, are meant foods of every kind, which, after use in the body, pass out into the drain; but in the spiritual sense, by those "things which come from without," are signified all things which from the memory, and also from the world, enter into the thought. These things also correspond to foods, and those which enter into the thought, and not at the same time into the will, do not render a man unclean, for the memory, and hence the thought, are to man only as an entrance to him, inasmuch as the will is the man himself; those things which only enter into the thought and no further, are rejected, as it were, through the belly [or stomach] into the drain; the "belly" from correspondence signifying the world of spirits, whence the thoughts belonging to man flow in; and the "drain" signifying hell. It is to be noted that man cannot be purified from evils, and the false principles thence derived, unless the unclean things which are in him emerge even into the thought, and be there seen, acknowledged, discerned, and rejected. From these considerations it is evident that by that which "comes from without," in the spiritual sense, is signified what enters into the thought from the memory and from the world; but by that which "comes forth from him," in the spiritual sense, is signified thought derived from the will, or from the love, for by the "heart," from which it goes forth into the mouth and out of the mouth, is signified the will and love of man; and inasmuch as the love and the will constitute the whole man, (for man is such as his love is), hence those things which go forth from man render him unclean, for that these are evils of every kind, is manifest from the things there enumerated. Thus is the Word of the Lord understood in the heavens. AE 580.

The words of the above parable are thus to be understood. All things, whether they be false or evil, which flow in from what is seen, or from what is heard, into the thought or the understanding, and not into the affection of man's will, do not affect and infect the man, inasmuch as the thought of man's understanding, so far as it does not proceed from the affection of his will, is not in the man, but out of him, wherefore it is not appropriated to him; the case is the same in regard to Truth and Good. These things the Lord teaches by correspondences, saying, that "that which enters by the mouth into the belly, does not render man unclean," inasmuch as it does not enter into the heart, for "that which enters into the belly is cast out into the drain," by which is meant, that that which from without, or extrinsically, whether it be from the objects of sight, or from the objects of speech, or from the objects of memory, enters into the thought of man's understanding, does not render him unclean, but, so far as it is out of his affection or will, is separated and ejected, as what is taken into the belly is ejected into the drain. These spiritual things the Lord expounded by natural things, since the foods which are taken by the mouth, and are let down into the belly, signify such things as man spiritually swallows, and by which he nourishes the soul; hence it is that the "belly" corresponds to the thought of the understanding, and also signifies it; that the "heart" signifies the affection of the will of man, has been shown above; also, that that alone is appropriated to man, which becomes the property of his affection or will. That spiritual things are meant, and not natural, is evident, for the Lord says, that "out of the heart go forth evil thoughts, murders, adulteries," &c. Inasmuch as the false and evil principles which enter from without into the thoughts, enter from the hells, and if they are not received by man with affection of the will, are ejected into the hells, therefore it is said that they are "cast out into the drain;" for by the "drain" is signified hell, by reason that in the hells all things are unclean, and they who are there have been cast out from heaven, which in form is as a man, and is hence called the Grand Man, and also corresponds to all things of man, whereas the hells thence correspond to ejections from the belly of the Grand Man, or heaven, from which ground it is that hell is meant by the "drain" in the spiritual sense. The reason why the belly is said to "purge all meats," is, because by the "belly" is signified the thought of the understanding, as was said above; and by "meats" are signified all spiritual nourishments, and the thought of the understanding is what separates unclean tilings from clean, and thereby "purges."AE 622.

See also AC 6204, 8910; where it is further observed on the subject, that man cannot desist from thinking evil, but from doing it, and as soon as he receives evil from the thought into the will, in this case it does not go forth, but enters into him, and this is said to enter into the heart; the things which thence go forth render him unclean, because what a man wills, this goes forth into speech and into act, so far as external restraints do not forbid, which restraints are the fear of the law, of the loss of reputation, of honour, of gain, and of life. See also DP 30.

The order of influx is such, that evil spirits first flow in, and that the angels dissipate the things which flow in: that such is the nature of influx, is not perceived by man, because his thought is kept in freedom by equilibrium between those two influxes, and because he does not attend to them; neither could the evil know, in case they attended, because with them there is no equilibrium between evil and good; but they who are principled in good are capable of knowing this. They also know from the Word, that there is something within which fights against what is evil and false in them, and that the spiritual man fights against the natural, thus the angels who are in man's interiors and in his spiritual principles, against the evil spirits who are in his exterior and natural principles; hence also the church is called militant. But the evil which flows into the thought from evil spirits does not at all hurt man, if he does not receive it; but if he receives it, and transfers it from the thought into the will, in this case he makes it his own, and in this case takes part with infernal spirits, and recedes from the angels in heaven. This is what the Lord teaches in Mark,—" Not that which enters into a man, makes him unclean: but the things which go forth from him, because these things are from the heart or from the will." (Mark 7:15-23.) AC 6308.

Verse 21. fornications, murders.—"Murders" denote the evils which destroy goods; "fornications" denote truths falsified. AC 3535.

What the falsification of Truth is, shall be illustrated by some examples. Truth is falsified when from reasonings it is concluded and said, that because no one can do good from himself, therefore good is of no effect to salvation. Truth is also falsified when it is said, that every good which man does, respects himself, and is done for the sake of recompense, and this being the case, that works of charity are not to be done. Truth is also falsified when it is said, that because all good is from the Lord, therefore man ought to do nothing of good, but to expect or await influx. Truth is falsified when it is said, that Truth can be given with man without the Good which is of charity, thus faith without charity. Truth is falsified when it is said, that no one can enter into heaven but he who is miserable and poor, when it is also said unless he gives his all to the poor and plunges himself into distress.

Truth is falsified when it is said, that every one, however he has lived, may be let into heaven from mercy. Truth is still more falsified when it is said, that there has been given to a man [such as the pope], the power of letting into heaven whom he pleases. Truth is falsified when it is said, that sins are wiped and washed away like filth by water; and truth is still more falsified when it is said, that a man has the power of remitting sins, and that when they are remitted, they are altogether wiped away, and man becomes pure. Truth is falsified when it is said, that the Lord has taken all sins to Himself, and thus has taken them away, and that man thereby can be saved, whatever his life be. Truth is falsified when it is said, that no one is saved but he who is within the church. The reasonings by which falsification is effected are, that they who are within the church are baptized, have the Word, have knowledge concerning the Lord, concerning the resurrection, concerning life eternal, heaven and hell, and thus that they know what faith is by which they may be purified. There are innumerable cases like these, for there is not a single truth which cannot be falsified, and the falsification be confirmed by reasonings from fallacies. AC 7318.

Verse 27. But Jesus said to her, Let the children first be filled: for it is not worthy to take the children's bread, and to cast it to the dogs,—All beasts in the Word signify affections and inclinations, such as those are which appertain to man; the tame and useful beasts, good affections and inclinations, but the wild and useless beasts, evil affections and inclinations. The reason why such things are signified by beasts, is, because the external or natural man enjoys similar affections and inclinations, and likewise similar appetites and similar senses with the beasts; but the difference is, that man has an internal principle, which is called the internal man, which in man is so distinct from the external, that he can see the things which exist in the latter, and can also rule and restrain them, and likewise be elevated into heaven, even to the Lord, and thus be conjoined to Him in thought and in affection, consequently in faith and love; this man is also so distinct from the external, that he is separated from him after death, and afterwards lives to eternity. By these things man is distinguished from beasts; but they who are merely natural and sensual, do not see these things, for their internal man is closed towards heaven; wherefore neither do they know of any other distinction between man and beast, than that man can speak, which also mere sensual men make light of. By "dogs" are signified those who render the good of faith unclean by falsifications, the ground of which signification is, because dogs eat unclean things, and likewise bark at and bite men; hence also it is, that the Gentiles out of the church, who were in false principles grounded in evil, were by the Jews called dogs, which were accounted the vilest of animals. That they were called dogs, is evident from the Lord's words to the Greek woman, a Syropbenician, whose daughter had an unclean spirit,—" It is not good to take the children's bread, and cast it to dogs. But she answered and said to Him, Yes, Lord: yet the dogs eat of the crumbs which fall from their master's table." (Matt 15:26, 27; Mark 7:26, 27.) In this passage by "dogs" are signified those who were out of the church, and by "children," those who were within the church. In like manner in Luke,—" There was a certain rich man, who was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day: but there was a poor man named Lazarus, who lay at his gate, full of sores, and desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table: moreover the dogs came and licked his sores;" (Luke 16:19, 20, 21.) where, by "a rich man clothed in purple and fine linen," are signified those who are within the church; "purple and fine linen," with which he was clothed, being the knowledges of good and truth derived from the Word. By the "poor man," are signified those within the church who, by reason of ignorance of the truth, are in a small degree of good, and yet desire to be instructed; the reason why he was called Lazarus, was from the Lazarus who was raised up by the Lord, of whom it is said, that "the Lord loved him," (John 11:1, 2, 3, 36.) and that he was His "friend," (John 11:11.) and that "he sat down at table with the Lord;" (12:2.) that he was willing to be fed with the "crumbs which fell from the rich man's table," signified his desire of learning a few truths from those within the church who are principled in good, although not the genuine good of faith; to "lick sores," is to be healed by them in any possible method. That good falsified, and thus rendered unclean, is signified by "dogs," is also evident from these words in Matthew,—" Give not that which is holy to dogs, neither cast you your pearls before swine." (Matt 7:6.) AC 9231. Verses 32—36. And they bring to Him one that was deaf, having an impediment in his speech; and they beseech Him to put His hand upon him. And taking him aside from the multitude, He put His fingers into his ears, and having spat, He touched his tongue; and looking up to heaven, He sighed, and says to him, Ephphatha, that is, Be opened. And immediately his ears were opened, and the string of his tongue was loosened, and he spoke plainly.—That all the Lord's miracles, as being Divine, involved and signified such things as are of heaven and the church, and that on this account they were the healings of diseases, by which were signified the various healings of spiritual life, may be seen in the AC AC 7337, 8364, 9031. By a "deaf person," are signified those who are not in the understanding of truth, and consequently not in obedience; and by one who had an "impediment in his speech," are signified those who, on that account, can hardly make confession of the Lord and of the truths of the church; by the "ears being opened" by the Lord, is signified perception of truth and obedience; and by the "tongue being loosened" by the Lord, is signified confession of the Lord and of the truths of the church. That the apostles and others after the Lord's resurrection, spoke with "new tongues," signified also confession of the Lord and of the truths of the New Church, on which subject it is thus written in Mark:—"Jesus said, These signs shall follow them that believe: in My name they shall cast out devils; and shall speak with new tongues;" (Mark 16:17.) where, by "casting out devils," is signified to remove and to reject the false principles of evil; and by "speaking with new tongues," is signified to confess the Lord and the truths of the church from Him; wherefore "there appeared to the apostles cloven tongues as of fire, which sat upon them; and being then filled with the Holy Spirit, they began to speak with other tongues;" (Acts 2:3, 4.) where by "fire" was signified the love of truth; and by being "filled with the Holy Spirit," was signified the reception of Divine Truth from the Lord; and by "new tongues," confessions grounded in the love of truths or zeal. For, as was said above, all Divine miracles, consequently all miracles mentioned in the Word, involved and signified spiritual and celestial things, that is, such things as are of the church and heaven, by which circumstance Divine miracles are distinguished from miracles not divine. AE 455. See also AC 6989.

Verse 31. Tyre and Sidon.—For the spiritual signification of "Tyre and Sidon," see above, Exposition, chap. 3:8.

Verses 35 and 37. And immediately his ears were opened.— To "hear," in the Word, signifies not only simply to hear, but also to receive in the memory and to be instructed, also to receive in the understanding and to believe, likewise to receive in obedience and to do; the reason why these things are signified by "hearing" is, because the speech which is heard presents itself before the internal sight or understanding, and is thus inwardly received, and there, according to the efficacy of rational argument, or according to the powers of persuasion from other sources, is either retained, or believed, or obeyed. Hence it is, that there is a correspondence of the eAR and of hearing with such things in the spiritual world, concerning which correspondence, see AC 4652—4660, 5017, 7216, 8361, 8990. That to "hear," denotes to receive in the memory and to be instructed, also to receive in the understanding and to believe, likewise to receive in obedience and to do, is evident from the following passages, as in Matthew,— "I speak by parables, because seeing they do not see; and hearing they do not hear, neither understand; that in them may be fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah, which says, Hearing you shall hear, and shall not understand; and seeing you shall see, and shall not perceive: for the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes have they closed; lest possibly they may see with their eyes, and heAR with their ears, and understand with their heart. Blessed are your eyes, because they see: and your ears, because they hear. Many prophets and just men have desired to see the things which you see, but have not seen them; and to heAR the things which you hear, but have not heard them." (Matt 13:13-17.) In which passage to "hear" is applied in every sense, as denoting both to be instructed, to believe, and to obey; "hearing, they do not hear," denotes to be taught and yet not to believe, also to be instructed and yet not to obey; to be "dull of hearing," denotes to refuse instruction, faith, and obedience; "blessed are your ears, for they hear," denotes blessedness from the reception of the doctrine of faith concerning the Lord, and by the Word from the Lord. So in John,—" He that enters in by the door is the shepherd of the sheep, and the sheep heAR his voice: all who have been before Me were thieves and robbers," but the sheep did not heAR them. Other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall heAR My voice; and there shall be one flock and one Shepherd. My sheep heAR My voice, and I know them, and they follow Me;" (John 10:2, 3, 8, 16, 27.) where, to "hear a voice," denotes to be instructed concerning the precepts of faith, and to receive them in faith and obedience. Similar things are signified by what the Lord so often said, — "He that has an eAR to hear, let him hear;" also by these words in Mark,—"They said of Jesus, He has done all things well: for He makes the deaf to hear, and the dumb to speak;" (Mark 7:37.) where the "deaf" denote those who are not acquainted with the truths of faith, and on that account cannot live according to them, see AC 6989; to "hear" denotes to be instructed, to receive, and to obey. AC 9311.


Chapter VII.

verse 3. For the Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash their hands up to the wrist, &c.—In the common version of the New Testament, what is here rendered "up to the wrist," is expressed by the adverb "oft," but the original Greek is pugmh, which properly means the fist, and has accordingly been interpreted by some writers as denoting, in the present instance, washing with the fist. The learned Lightfoot, however, explains the phrase by washing the hands as far as the fist extended, that is, up to the wrist.

Verse 9. Full well you reject the commandment of God.— What is here rendered "full well," is expressed in the original Greek by the adverb kalwd, which means well, and which some writers, as Grotius and Parkhurst, have interpreted as being here applied ironically, or in the way of reproof. But probably the term is here adopted by the Lord, merely as expressive of the prudence of the Pharisees and Scribes in securing their own tradition, since, bad they not first rejected the commandment of God, the tradition could not have been secured.

Verse 19. Purging all meats.—From the Lord's spiritual interpretation of the parable, of which these words make a part, it is evident, that a rejected or ejected thought, so far from defiling a man, rather tends to his purification, or, as it is here expressed, "purges all meats." It is not therefore the entrance of a thought into the understanding which ought to excite man's alarm, be it ever so evil and filthy, provided he be on his guard to prevent its admission into the will or love. For if this caution be used, the thought, in such case, operates like a medicine, which, by increasing the powers of digestion, has a tendency at the same time to cleanse and strengthen the constitution.

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