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The Lord
God is a Man

Lord is the Word
Fulfillment of the Law
Coming of the Lord
Passion of the Cross
Son of God and of Man
One with the Father
Lord is God
God is One
The Holy Spirit
Athanasian Creed
New Jerusalem
Doctrine of the Lord

Chapter III.

The Lord came into the World to Subjugate the Hells and to Glorify His Human, and the Passion of the Cross was the Final Combat, whereby he fully conquered the Hells, and Fully Glorified his Human

L 12. It is known in the church that the Lord conquered death, by which is meant hell, and that He afterwards ascended in glory into heaven; but as yet it has not been known that it was by means of combats which are temptations that the Lord conquered death or hell, and at the same time by means of them glorified His Human; and that the passion of the cross was the final combat or temptation by means of which He effected this conquest and this glorification. Of these temptations many things are said in the Prophets and in David; but not so many in the Evangelists. In these, the temptations which He endured from childhood are summarily described by His temptations in the wilderness, followed by those from the devil and the last of them by the things He suffered at Gethsemane and on the cross. (Concerning His temptations in the wilderness, and by the devil, see (Matt. 4:1-11; Mark 1:12, 13; Luke 4:1-13.) By these temptations, however, are meant all His temptations even to the last of them. He revealed no more to His disciples concerning them; for it is said in Isaiah:--

He was oppressed, yet He opened not His mouth: as a lamb that is brought to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so He opened not His mouth (Isa 53:7).

Concerning His temptations at Gethsemane, see (Matt. 26:36-44; Mark 14:32-42; Luke 22:39-46). And concerning the temptations on the cross, see (Matt. 27:33-50; Mark 15:22-37; Luke 23:33-49; John 19:17-34.) Temptations are nothing else than combats against the hells.

L 13. That the Lord fully conquered the hells by the passion of the cross, He Himself teaches in John:--

Now is the judgment of this world; now shall the prince of this world be cast out (John 12:31).

The Lord said this when the passion of the cross was at hand. The prince of this world is judged (John 16:11).

Be of good cheer, I have overcome the world (John 16:33).

In Luke:--

Jesus said, I beheld Satan as lightning fall from heaven (Luke 10:18).

The "world," the "prince of the world," "Satan," and "the devil," mean hell. That by the passion of the cross the Lord also fully glorified His Human, He teaches in John:--

When Judas was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in Him; if God be glorified in Him, God will also glorify Him in Himself, and will straightway glorify Him (John 13:31, 32).

Father, the hour is come, glorify Thy Son, that Thy Son also may glorify Thee (John 17:1).

Now is My soul troubled; and He said, Father, glorify Thy name. Then came there a voice from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, and I will glorify it again (John 12:27, 28).

In Luke:--

Ought not the Christ to suffer this, and to enter into His glory? (Luke 24:26).

These things are said of the Passion. Glorification is the unition of the Divine and the Human; and therefore it is said, "and God will glorify Him in Himself."

L 14. That the Lord came into the world to reduce into order all things in heaven, and derivatively on earth; that this was effected by means of combats against the hells, which were then infesting every man that came into the world and that went out of the world; and that He thereby became righteousness, and saved men, who otherwise could not have been saved, is foretold in many passages in the Prophets, of which only a few shall be adduced.

[2] In Isaiah:--

Who is this that cometh from Edom, with sprinkled garments from Bozrah; this that is glorious in His apparel, marching in the greatness of His strength? I that speak in righteousness, mighty to save. Wherefore art Thou red in Thine apparel, and Thy garments like Him that treadeth in the wine-press? I have trodden the wine-press alone, and of the people there was not a man with Me wherefore I have trodden them in Mine anger, and trampled them in My wrath; therefore their victory is sprinkled upon My garments; for the day of vengeance is in Mine heart, and the year of My redeemed is come. Mine own arm brought salvation unto Me; and I brought down their victory to the earth. He said, Lo, they are My people, sons; therefore He was their Saviour in His love, and in His pity, He redeemed them (Isa 63:1-9).

These things are said of the Lord’s combats against the hells. The "apparel" in which He was "glorious," and which was "red," means the Word, to which violence had been done by the Jewish people. The actual combat against the hells, and the victory over them, are described by its being said that He "trod them in His anger, and trampled them in His wrath." That He fought alone, and from His own power, is described by, "of the people there was not a man with Me, Mine own arm brought salvation unto Me, I brought down their victory to the earth." That He thereby effected salvation and redemption, is described by, "therefore He was their Saviour; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them." That this was the reason for His advent, is described by, "the day of vengeance is in Mine heart, and the year of My redeemed is come."

[3] In Isaiah again:--

He saw that there was not anyone, and He was amazed that there was none to interpose therefore His own arm brought salvation unto Him; and His righteousness, it upheld Him; therefore He put on righteousness as a coat of mail, and a helmet of salvation upon His head; and He put on garments of vengeance, and clad Himself with zeal as a cloak then came the Redeemer to Zion (Isa 59:16, 17, 20).

These words also treat of the Lord‘s combats against the hells while He was in the world. That He fought against them from His own power, is meant by, "He saw that there was not anyone, therefore His own arm brought salvation unto Him." That thereby He became righteousness, is meant by, "His righteousness, it upheld Him, whence He put on righteousness as a coat of mail." That He thus effected redemption, is meant by, "then came the Redeemer to Zion."

[4] In Jeremiah:--

They are dismayed, their strong ones were beaten down, they are fled a pace, and look not back: that day is to the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth a day of vengeance, that He may take vengeance of His enemies, and the sword shall devour, and be sated (Jer 46:5, 10).

The Lord’s combat with the hells, and His victory over them, are described by its being said that they are dismayed, and that their strong ones being beaten down are fled apace, and looked not back. Their "strong ones," and "enemies," are the hells, for all there feel hatred against the Lord. His advent into the world for this purpose is meant by, "that day is to the Lord Jehovih Zebaoth a day of vengeance, that He may take vengeance of His enemies."

[5] In Jeremiah:--

Her young men shall fall in the streets, and all the men of war shall be cut off in that day (Jer 49:26).

In Joel:--

Jehovah hath uttered His voice before His army; the day of Jehovah is great and very terrible who therefore can endure it? (Joel 2:11).

In Zephaniah:--

In the day of the sacrifice of Jehovah I will visit upon the princes, upon the king‘s sons, upon all who are clothed with strange apparel That day is a day of distress, a day of the trumpet and of sounding (Zephaniah 1:8, 15, 16).

In Zechariah:--

Jehovah shall go forth, and fight against the nations, as when He fought in the day of battle. And His feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives, which is before the faces of Jerusalem. Then shall ye flee into the valley of My mountains. In that day there shall not be light and brightness. And Jehovah shall be king over all the earth in that day there shall be one Jehovah, and His name one (Zechariah 14:3-6, 9).

These passages also treat of the Lord’s combats. "That day" means His advent. The Mount of Olives that was before the faces of Jerusalem, was where the Lord was wont to tarry. (Mark 13:3; 14:26; Luke 21:37; 22:39; John 8:1)

[6] In David:--

The cords of death compassed me about, the cords of hell encompassed me, the snares of death forestalled me; therefore He sent out His arrows, and many lightnings, and discomfited them. I will pursue Mine enemies, and catch them, neither will I turn until I have consumed them. I will smite them that they shall not be able to rise. Thou hast girded me with strength unto the war, and Thou shalt put mine enemies to flight I will beat them small as dust before the faces of the wind, as the mire of the streets I will enfeeble them (Ps. 18:5, 14, 37-40, 42).

The "cords" and "snares of death" that encompassed and forestalled, signify temptations, which, being from hell, are called also "the cords of hell." These and all other things in this whole Psalm treats of the Lord‘s combats and victories; and therefore it is added, "Thou wilt make me the head of the nations a people that have not known shall serve me" (Ps. 18:43).

[7] In David, again:--

Gird Thy sword upon Thy thigh, O Mighty one; Thine arrows are sharp, the people shall fall under Thee, from the heart of the king’s enemies. Thy throne is forever and to eternity: Thou hast loved righteousness, wherefore God hath anointed Thee (Ps. 45:3, 5-7).

These words also treat of combat with the hells, and of their subjugation; for this whole Psalm treats of the Lord, that is to say, of His combats, His glorification, and the salvation of the faithful by Him. In David:--

A fire shall go before Him, it shall burn up His enemies round about the earth shall see and shall fear the mountains shall melt like wax before the Lord of the whole earth. The heavens shall declare His righteousness, and all the people shall see His glory (Ps. 97:3-6).

This Psalm likewise treats of the Lord, and of the like things.

[8] In David:--

Jehovah said unto my Lord, Sit Thou at My right hand until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool; rule Thou in the midst of Thine enemies. The Lord at Thy right hand hath smitten kings in the day of His anger; He hath filled with dead bodies, He hath smitten the head over much land (Ps. 110:1, 2, 5, 6).

That these words are said of the Lord, is evident from His own words in (Matt. 22:44; Mark 12:36; Luke 20:42). To "sit at the right hand," signifies omnipotence; the "enemies" signify the bells "kings," those there who are in falsities of evil. To "make them His footstool," " smite them in the day of anger," and "fill with dead bodies," signifies to destroy their power; and to "smite the head over much land," signifies to destroy all.

[9] As the Lord alone conquered the hells, without the aid of any angel, He is called HERO, and a MAN OF WARS (Isa. 42:13);



and in many places, JEHOVAH ZEBAOTH, that is, Jehovah of the Armies of War. His advent is also called THE DAY OF JEHOVAH terrible, cruel, of indignation, of wrath, of anger, of vengeance, of destruction, of war, of the sounding of the trumpet, of tumult, as may be seen from the passages quoted above, in (n. 4).

[10] As the Last Judgment executed by the Lord when He was in the world was effected by means of combats with the hells, and by their subjugation, this coming Judgment is treated of in many passages. As in David:--

Jehovah cometh to judge the earth; He shall judge the world in righteousness, and the people in truth (Ps. 96:13).

And so in many other passages. These are from the prophetical parts of the Word.

[11] In its historical parts like things are represented by the wars of the sons of Israel with various nations; for everything that is written in the Word, whether in prophecy or history, is written about the Lord; and this is why the Word is Divine. Many arcana of the Lord‘s glorification are contained in the rituals of the Israelitish Church, as for example in its burnt-offerings and sacrifices, in its sabbaths and feasts, and in the priesthood of Aaron and the Levites; as they are also in all those other things in Moses which are called laws, judgments, and statutes; and this is what is meant by the Lord’s words to His disciples:--

That He must needs fulfill all things which are written in the law of Moses concerning Him (Luke 24:44)

and by His saying to the Jews that Moses "wrote of Him" (John 5:46).

[12] From all this it is evident that the Lord came into the world to subjugate the hells, and to glorify His Human; and that the passion of the cross was the final combat, by which He fully conquered the hells, and fully glorified His Human. But more will be seen on this subject in the following small work on The Holy Scripture, where are collected together all the passages from the prophetical Word that treat of the Lord‘s combats with the hells and His victories over them; or, what is the same, that treat of the Last Judgment executed by Him when He was in the world; and also those which treat of His passion, and of the glorification of His Human, which are so numerous that if quoted they would fill pages.